Sandy Lee Garcia
Child, Family, & Society Soc. 312
The Bioecological Model of Human Development
The bioecological model of human development has four basic systems. The four basic systems are macro systems, exosystems, microsystems, and mesosystems. I will summarize the four systems and how the influences that they have on a child’s development. I will describe how the four systems in the model differ from one other. I will provide examples of the four systems of their relationships and interactions to one another. The fours systems are microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems, and macrosystems. Microsystems, which involves immediate environments like (family, school, peer group, neighborhoods, and childcare environments). Mesosystems, A system compromise of connections between immediate environments(examples a child’s home and school). Exosystem; External environmental settings which only indirectly affect development(such as parent’s workplace). Macrosystem: (the larger cultural context) national economy, political culture, and subculture. Examples of macrosystems are family planning services and affordability of contraceptives which can influence teen pregnancy and birth rates. Young women are taking to the planned parenthood in their area to get birth control pills to prevent teenage pregnancy. We have birth rates here in the valley the youngest we have had giving birth is an 11year old. Examples of what is in the exosystems layer are extended family, family networks, mass media, workplaces, neighbors, family friends, community health systems, legal services, social welfare services. Though the child may not have dire contact with it, the systems affect the child's development and socialization - as do all the systems. Because the people in the child's life are affected by the exosystems and mesosystems Mesosystems as parents interact with childcare providers, or as neighbors interact with each other. We as parents we try to stay involved with our children’s homework, grades and other things. But if we see something is wrong we set up a parent conference right away with the teacher. Ecological systems theory: “This theory looks at a child’s development within the context of the system of relationships that form his or her environment. Bronfenbrenner’s theory defines complex “layers” of environment, each having an effect on a child’s development”. “This theory has recently been renamed “bioecological systems theory” to emphasize that a child’s own biology is a primary environment fueling her development” The interaction between factors in the child’s maturing biology, his immediate family/community environment, and the societal landscape fuels and steers his development. Changes or conflict in any one layer will ripple throughout other layers. To study a child’s development then, we must look not only at the child and her immediate environment, but also at the interaction of the larger environment as well. The various terms in this graphic are links that lead to pages explaining their implications in this theory. Bronfenbrenner’s structure of environment: “The microsystem – this is the layer closest to the child and contains the structures with which the child has direct contact”. (Berk, 2000). The microsystem encompasses the relationships and interactions a child has with her immediate surroundings (Berk, 2000).” “Structures in the microsystem include family, school, neighborhood, or childcare environments”. (Berk, 2000). “At this level, relationships have impact in two directions - both away from the child and toward the child. For example, a child’s parents may affect his beliefs and behavior; however, the child also affects the behaviorand beliefs of the parent” (Berk, 2000).. Bronfenbrenner calls these bi-directional influences, and he shows how they occur among all levels of environment. “The interaction of structures within a layer and interactions of structures...
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