By the time a child enters school, aged 5, they are able to execute numerous fine motor skills that allow them to perform many activates to learn and succeed at school. When most people think of their child’s growth and development they can remember the ages at which their child first rolled, crawled, or walked. How many can recall the age at which they picked up small items between their thumb and index finger, or transferred objects from one hand to another? This is the beginning of motor development. Fine motor skills are the collected skills and activities involved using the hands and fingers . Fine motor skills are those skills that require the small muscles of the hand to work together to form precise and refined movements. . It’s the way in which we manipulate the movement of objects such as pens, pencils and scissors using the fingers and thumb in co ordination with the eyes. These skills develop in a consistent pattern from birth to mid primary school. These skills take a large portion of a child’s younger life to practice and develop dexterity. Even though we have a huge range of technology widely available to us, it is still important to be able to use a pencil, pen or crayon. Children need strong fine motor skills to hold a pencil correctly and to move the pencil in all the complicated ways required to draw letters and shapes.
Using scissors correctly is another lifelong skill that is reliant on fine motor skills. Children will need well-developed muscles in their thumb, index finger, middle finger and wrist to open and close the blades of the scissors. Think about the demands on small fingers and hands when children play with block, jigsaw puzzles and small construction toys such as Lego and computer key boards. Getting dressed and manipulating buttons and zippers requires strong fingers. Little fingers need to be able to move with ease. Fine motor development starts at birth with the control of the eyes, head, shoulders, hips and body. A baby first learns to track an object in their line of sight. The next stage is when they are able to hold their head up. From there they develop strength to hold their shoulders and finally crawl. These are the beginnings of motor skill development. At the next stage a child is able to grasp and transfer large objects from one hand to the other and reach out and pick up items. The child is exploring their environment and toys. They begin pre writing (colouring, scribble), feeding themselves, beginning to dress themselves and playing with small toys. By age five most children become skilled in the use of utensils, pencils , scissors and manipulation of objects. The final stage is the ability to perform task automatically. Lack of physical activity hinders a child’s capacity to learn, they are unable to concentrate and complete given tasks. From this they develop a sense of not succeeding and worthlessness. Their self esteem is low and often this leads to low academic results and poor interaction with their peers. These children can become isolates within the school environment. Children need to be active not only at school but at home. Unfortunately as an educator I have no control over their home life. At school these children need to be exposed to a regular physical program such as fundamental movements, free play with appropriate activities and equipment to develop their physical and mental wellbeing. Many factors affect physical development. Genetics inheritance can affect a child’s growth and development. Parents who have difficulties themselves will struggle to teach their children skills they do not have. The environment influences physical child development “Numerous sciences including medicine, psychology, zoology, biology and sociology study whether human development is more influenced by genetics or environmental factors. Research indicates both play a role. Within the realm of physical development of children’s, there are many ways in which environment has...
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