Physic

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Hoo Sze Yen

Form 4 Experiments

Physics SPM 2008

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS
1.1 PENDULUM
Hypothesis: The longer the length of a simple pendulum, the longer the period of oscillation. Aim of the experiment: To investigate how the period of a simple pendulum varies with its length. Variables: Manipulated: The length of the pendulum, l Responding: The period of the pendulum, T Constant: The mass of the pendulum bob, gravitational acceleration Apparatus/Materials: Pendulum bob, length of thread about 100 cm long, retort stand, stopwatch Setup:

Thread Length, l Retort stand

Pendulum

Procedure: 1. The thread is tied to the pendulum bob. The other end of the thread is tied around the arm of the retort stand so that it can swing freely. The length of the pendulum, l is measured to 80 cm as per the diagram. Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics Page 1 of 52

Hoo Sze Yen

Form 4 Experiments

Physics SPM 2008

2. With the thread taut and the bob at rest, the bob is lifted at a small amplitude (of not more than 10°). Ensure that the pendulum swings in a single plane. 3. The time for ten complete oscillations of the pendulum is measured using the stopwatch. 4. Step 3 is repeated, and the average of both readings are calculated. 5. The period of oscillation, T is calculated using the average reading divided by the number of oscillations, i.e. 10. 6. T2 is calculated by squaring the value of T. 7. Steps 1 to 6 are repeated using l = 70 cm, 60 cm, 50 cm, and 40 cm. 8. A graph T2 versus l is plotted. Recording of data: Length of pendulum, l (cm) 80 70 60 50 40 Graph of T2 vs l T2 Time of oscillations, t (s) t2 Average Period of oscillation, T T = t/10 (s) T2 (s2)

t1

Length of pendulum, l

Discussion: The graph of T2 versus l shows a straight line passing through the origin. This means that the period of oscillation increases with the length of the pendulum, with T2 directly proportional to l. Conclusion: The longer the length of the pendulum, the longer the period of oscillation. The hypothesis is proven valid.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics

Page 2 of 52

Hoo Sze Yen

Form 4 Experiments

Physics SPM 2008

CHAPTER 2: FORCES AND MOTION
2.1 INCLINED PLANES
Hypothesis: The larger the angle of incline, the higher the velocity just before reaching the end of the runway Aim of the experiment: To study the relationship between the velocity of motion and the angle of inclination Variables: Manipulated: Angle of incline Responding: Velocity just before reaching the end of the runway Constant: Length of runway Apparatus/Materials: Trolley, protractor, wooden blocks, cellophane tape, tickertimer, ticker tape, power supply, friction-compensated runway Setup:

Procedure: 1. The apparatus is set up as per the diagram, and the inclined angle of the plane is measured using a protractor. An initial angle of 5° is used. 2. The ticker-timer is started up and at the same time the trolley is released to slide down the plane. 3. The final velocity when the trolley reaches the end of the plane is calculated using the distance of 10 ticks on the ticker tape. 4. The procedure is repeated by changing the angle of incline to 10°, 15°, 20° and 25°.

Chapter 2: Forces and Motion

Page 3 of 52

Hoo Sze Yen

Form 4 Experiments

Physics SPM 2008

Results: Angle of incline (˚) Final velocity (m s-1) 5 10 15 20 25 Analysis: A graph of the velocity of the trolley against the angle of incline is plotted as follows: Velocity (m s-1)

Angle of incline (°) Conclusion: A higher angle of incline will have a higher velocity at the end of the runway. Hypothesis accepted. Note: The experiment can be modified by making the angle constant and varying the height and length of the runway. Changes must be made accordingly: hypothesis, variable list, procedure, table, analysis, conclusion.

Chapter 2: Forces and Motion

Page 4 of 52

Hoo Sze Yen

Form 4 Experiments

Physics SPM 2008

2.2 INERTIA...
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