Phrase and Clause

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Phrase
A Phrase is a group of related words that does not include a subject and predicate.

There are several kind of phrases:
Noun Phrase
A noun phrase is a group of words with a noun as its headword. Some noun phrases begin with an infinitive (to go) or a gerund (going). Example:
The young man threw the old dog a bone.

Adjective Phrase
An adjective phrase is a phrase with an adjective as its head. An adjective phrase modifies a noun. Occasionally following a noun Example:
The girl with long hair is my sister.

Adverb Phrase
An adverb phrase is a group of words which functions like an adverb. An adverb phrase modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb. It is used to tell when, where, how, or to what extent about the word it modifies. Examples:

Megan put her bird in its cage.
We are expecting him to come next year.

Verb Phrase
A verb phrase is a group of words with verb as headword
Example:
He may be folowing us.

Preposition Phrase
A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition Example:
She arrived by bus.

Clause
Clause is a group of words which forms grammatical unit and which contains a subject and finite verb.

There are two kind of clauses: Independent Clause and Dependent Clause

Independent clause is a clause that can stand alone as a sentence. Also known as Simple Sentence. Contains a subject and predicate Examples: I love penguins I drive a bus Dependent clause is a clause that can’t stand alone as a sentence. Dependent clause must be accompanied with an independent clause.

There are three types of dependent clauses:
Adjective Clause
Adjective, or relative, clauses modify noun and, in order to make the relationship clear, follow the noun they modify. Examples: Our class, which meets at 9:00 in the morning, discusses the importance and use of grammar in our schools. The girl whom we met on holiday is coming to see us .

Adverb Clause
Adverb...
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