Photosynthesis and Inner Chloroplast Membranes

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Chloroplast

Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell. This organelle is only found eukaryotic cells. They are only found in plant cells. Chloroplasts contain small pigments called chlorophylls. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts. All green plants you see are working to convert the energy of the sun into sugars. Plants are the basis of all life on Earth. They create sugars, and the oxygen that we breathe. This process is also known as chloroplast. The mitochondria work in the opposite direction and breaks down the sugars and nutrients that the cell receives. Photosynthesis is the process of a plant taking energy from the Sun and creating sugars. When the energy from the Sun hits a chloroplast, chlorophyll uses that energy to combine carbon dioxide and water. The molecular reactions create sugar and oxygen. Plants and animals then use the sugars know as glucose, for food and energy. The chloroplast organelle is composed of three membrane layers including the outer and inner chloroplast membranes and the thylakoid membrane. Because of their large size and green color, chloroplasts in plant cells were founded by early microscopists, in the 17th century including Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. In 1682, Nehemiah Grew saw green precipitates in leaves, this lead to the first report of the existence of chloroplasts. After the discovery of this organelle, many experiments were attempted, but not any succeeded. In 1771 the light-dependent production of oxygen by plants was discovered by Joseph Priestley. He conducted an experiment by putting a mouse in an enclosed glass jar in which there was a burning candle and the mouse died, but when a plant was put in the jar with a candle, it lived. The plant lived by the process of photosynthesis. One leaf could contain up to 50 to 100 chloroplast. In 1649, Jan Baptista Van Helmont began by transplanting the shoot of a young willow tree into a large bucket of soil.

The chloroplasts are usually 5-10...
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