Photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis is a process through which plants and some certain types of bacteria get energy from the sun's UV-rays and use it to create and store sugar that is transformed into ATP by cellular respiration later on in the process. In plants, this process takes place in chloroplasts, which concentrate in the mesophyll cells, with the help of chlorophyll, the green pigment, which is directly involved in photosynthesis. It is important to understand that we see leaves green simply because the green color gets reflected the most and does not get absorbed by the "green" pigment. An interesting fact is that when leaves change colors and we see red or yellow leaves, we can be sure that those are the colors that do not get absorbed and the following will explain this fact.

The light phase occurs in the thylakoid membrane or the photosynthesis membrane, where all the necessary pigments and ATP Synthetase are concentrated. These pigments are the ones to catch the sun's rays and begin photosynthesis. After that, photons of light interact with either a chlorophyll or carotenoid molecule. Generally speaking, the energy of light is caught and transformed into ATP and NADPH. The last ones are used to produce energy required for the cycles that follow. The light independent reaction, which can be also called the carbon fixing stage, is complex and has a lot of phases just like the previous reaction. It takes the NADPH and ATP molecules, provided by the electrons, to which the sun light and water were broken down. This is the last stage of photosynthesis; however, the processes in the plant keep going.
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