Submitted by: Pedroza, Kristel Doone Q. Uy, Mary Colleen U.
Submitted to: Prof. Ria Parsram Rafael
As a requirement in Linguistics 120 First Semester AY 2010-2011
Department of Linguistics University of the Philippines, Diliman October 18, 2010
A Phonological and Prosodical Contrastive Study of Waray, Cebuano, and Hiligaynon Pedroza, Kristel Doone Q. Uy, Mary Colleen U.
Every language constitutes its own sound system, and this sound system is a very important aspect when learning or studying a language. Along with this sound system are the prosodic features of a language. This study is about the phonological system and the prosodic features of three of the Bisayan Languages, namely Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon. The phonological system and the prosodic features of these languages were already studied by Zorc (1975) and Jacobson (1979) but the authors still felt the need to further deepen the scope of their studies. Aside from analyzing the basic phonology of the three languages, this study will also tackle the effect of affixation on the prosodic features of the three languages. To be able to study and analyze the said features, the authors used the data gathered from eliciting materials answered by the informants of the study. After the analysis done, the authors were able to present the relevant findings of the study. First is the basic phonetic system of the three languages and their similarities and differences. Second is the basic description of the prosodic features of the three languages and their similarities and differences. And lastly, the most important of all, are the changes that occur for every language when affixation happens on a morpheme, the specific affixes that contribute to regular stress shift, and their similarities and differences. This signifies that since the languages studied are of a common classification, several similarities would be evident. But, since they are still classified as different languages, they would also have distinct characteristics from each other.
Learning a language begins with the recognition of the different sound systems of the language, because the sense and consequently the understanding of a word depends upon its pronunciation. In the field of linguistics, the study of the sound system of a language is called phonetics. Phonetics provides a systematic study of a language from its smallest element called the segments, which are then classified to consonants and vowels. Embedded in the sound system of a language is what we call the suprasegmentals or the prosodic features of a language. Suprasegmentals are features associated with stretches larger than the segment, in particular pitch, stress and duration (Gussenhoven, 2001). While it is not the paper’s primary aim to teach a language, this study provides a comparative study of three of the Bisayan languages with regards to their phonological and prosodic structure.
A. Background of the Languages
The Bisayan languages is a group of Philippine languages heavily distributed in the islands of Visayas, the Bicol Region, and in some parts of Mindanao and Luzon. Zorc (1975) mentions 36 languages of the Bisayan languages, the Bisayan dialects, together with Tagalog and the Bikol languages as the languages that make up the Central-Philippine Subgroup (McFarland, 1994). This study focuses on three of the Bisayan languages: Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon. McFarland groups Waray and Hiligaynon under the Central Bisayan Subgroup and Cebuano under the South Bisayan Languages. Zorc, on the other hand, separates Waray and Hiligaynon to the Warayan Subgroup and Peripheral Subgroup, respectively, both under the higher order subgroup of Central Bisayan while Cebuano is placed under the Cebuano Subgroup. Waray (or Waray-Waray) is a Philippine language spoken in the provinces of Samar, Northern Samar, Eastern...