Phonetics and Phonology

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PRATOR & ROBINETT. Manual of American English Pronunciation. Fourth Edition, Orlando:Harcourt Brace & Company, 1985

LESSON 8 - Summary

The voiced and voiceless consonant sounds are

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Note: All vowel sounds are voiced.

Pairs of consonants (two halves of a voiced-voiceless pair)

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Stop, continuant and sibilant sounds

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Pronunciation of –ed

The ending –ed, added to regular English verbs to form the past tense and past participle, has three different pronunciations: /t/ as in wished, / δ / as in failed, and / δ / as in needed.

Phonetic principle: when two consonants are pronounced together, as /r/ and /d/ in cared, it is easier to voice both consonants or leave both voiceless than it is to voice one and leave the other voiceless. Therefore, the ending –ed is pronounced /d/ after a voiced sound, and /t/ after a voiceless sound

1. / δ / - after all voiced consonants except /δ/, and after all vowel sounds:

planned – /πλΘνδ/ (a one-syllable word)
judged – /δΖ(δΖΔδ/ (a one-syllable word)
played – /(((((/ (a one-syllable word)
robbed – /(((((/ (a one-syllable word)

2. /t/ - after all voiceless consonants except /t/

kissed – /κΙστ/ ( one-syllable word)
passed* – /πΘστ/ (a one-syllable word)
laughed –/ λΘφτ/ (a one-syllable word)
fixed - /φΙκστ/ (a one-syllable word)

* “ passed” and “ past” – /πΘστ/ ( one-syllable words)

3. As a separate syllable, /Ιδ/, after /δ, t/

minded – /‘μαινδΙδ/ (a two-syllable word)
lighted – /‘λαΙτΙδ/ (a two-syllable word)
lasted – /‘λΘστΙδ/ (a two-syllable word)
added - /‘ΘδΙδ/ (a two-syllable word)

Observe the sound that is given to the ending of the following verbs in the past tense and past participle. Add three (03) verbs to each ending pronunciation.

|/ δ / |caused, longed, armed, aired, changed, believed, answered, showed, followed, turned, combed, _____________, ______________, | | |_______________ | |/t/ |wished, dropped, crossed, asked, brushed, kicked, boxed, reached, watched, washed, picked, _____________, ______________, | | |________________ | |/Ιδ/ |ended, intended, mended, founded, avoided, started, protected, acted, reacted, fitted, trusted, _______________, | | |________________, __________________ |

EXCEPTIONS: There are only 03 (three) types of exception to these rules.

a. A group of adjectives that end in –ed and therefore look like verbs: naked (/(((((((/), ragged (/(ρΘγ((/), rugged (/(ρ(γ((/), wicked (/(ωΙκ((/), wretched (/(ρετΣ((/), legged /(λεγ((/, blessed ((bλεσ((), dogged ((((γ(().

Some examples:

naked - /(((((((/ (= not covered by clothes)

The child stripped naked (= took off his clothes) and ran into the sea.

He was naked to the waist. (= not wearing clothes above his waist.)

ragged - /(ρΘγ((/ (of clothes)

The children were wearing dirty ragged clothes (= not in good condition, torn).

|VERBS |ADJECTIVES | |(one-syllable words) |(two-syllable words) | |The Pope blessed (βλεστ) the crowd. |Take that blessed ((βλεσΙδ) cat out! | | |The nun said she had seen the Blessed ((βλεσΙδ) Virgin. | |The little boy dogged (((γ() his brother’s steps. (= to have|Her...
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