Phonetics

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The phonetics of English language
Chapter 1.The production of speech
Phonetics may be considered the grammar of pronunciation.
Phonetic system of English consists of the following four components: speech sounds, the syllabic structure of words, word stress, and intonation (prosody). These four components what is called pronunciation of English. In any language people speak using their organs of speech.

All the organs of speech can be divided into two groups:
Active organs of speech- are movable and taking part in the sound formation: (a) the vocal cords which produce voice; (b)the tongue which is the most flexible, movable organ; (c)the lips affecting very considerably the shape of the mouth cavity; (d) the soft palate with the ulvula. Directing the stream of the air either to the mouth or to the nasal cavity; (e) the back wall of the pharynx contracted for some sounds; (f) the lower jaw which movement controls the gap between the teeth and also the disposition of the lips; (g) the lungs, providing air for sounds Passive organs of speech – (a) the teeth, (b)the teeth ridge, (c) the hard palate and(d) the walls of the resonators. Vocal cords- are two elastic folds, which may be kept apart, or brought together. Glottis- is the opening between the vocal cords. Voiced sounds- are produced when the vocal cords are brought together. Voiceless sounds- are made with the vocal cords kept apart.

Glottal stop- is produce when the vocal cords are brought close together and then opened suddenly by the air stream. The soft palate- is the furthest part of the palate from the teeth, Ulvula- is the very end of the soft palate.

Hard palate- is the highest part of the palate.
Teeth ridge or alveolar ridge- is the part immediately behind the upper front teeth. The tongue is divided into 4 parts:
1)Back part- the part, which lies opposite the soft palate
2)Front part- the part facing the hard palate
3)The blade (tip) of the tongue- the part, lying under the teeth ridge 4)The central part - the area, where the front and back meet. Part 2. The Sounds of Speech
Chapter1. Sounds and Phonemes
Phonemes- are speech sounds which are grouped into language units. It’s the smallest contractive language unit, which exists in the speech. Allophones- are various speech realizations of the phoneme. The difference between the allophones of the same phoneme is due to their position in various phonetic contexts. Distinctive articulatory features- are those articulatory features which are common to all the allophones of the same phoneme and are capable of differentiating of the meaning. Chapter 2. Consonants.

Consonants- are made with the air stream that meets an obstruction in the mouth of nasal cavities. Consonants are bones of a word and give it its basic shape. On the articulatory level the consonants change:

1) In the degree of noise
2) In the manner of articulation
3) In the place of articulation
The degree of noise
According to a degree of noise English consonants are divided into two big classes Class 1. Noise consonants (in the production, there is noise component characteristic) Vary :
1) In the manner of articulation
2) In the place of articulation
3) In the work of vocal cords (VOCELESS and VOICED)
4) In the force of articulation (STRONG noise consonants are produced with more muscular energy and stronger breath effort; WEAK noise consonants are produced with relatively weak effort) Class 2. Sonorants( are made with tone prevailing over noise because of a rather wide air passage) 2. The Manner of Articulation

The manner of articulation of consonants is determined by type of obstruction. Complete obstruction – the organs of speech are in contact and the air stream meets the closure in the mouth or nasal cavities(p, b, t, d, k, g, m, n, ʧ, ʤ, ŋ) Incomplete obstruction- the active organs of speech moves towards the point of articulation and the air stream goes through the narrowing between them (f, v, s, θ,...
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