Phobias and Addictions Paper
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are two different ways people learn things and develop certain behaviors. People can develop phobias and addictions through classical and operant conditioning. “In classical conditioning, an environmental stimulus leads to a learned response, through pairing of an unconditioned stimulus with a previously neutral conditioned stimulus. The result is a conditioned response, or learned reflex” (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, “Learning”, p.167). A behavior produces an environmental response in operant conditioning. An example the text gives us if that of a cat learning how to open a latch in order to gain access to food. The cat saw the food on the outside of the box and eventually opened the latch which allowed the cat out of the box and gave her access to the food. After repeating the experiment numerous times the cat learned how to open the latch almost immediately in order to get to the food. The consequences of our behaviors will produce future behaviors. Reinforcement and Punishment are two types of consequences that will be further discussed along with extinction and how it is linked to operant and classical conditioning. Classical and operant conditioning are similar, yet differ as well. Phobias can be developed through classical conditioning by us experiencing something that makes us to react to a certain way every time we are put in that situation. For example, if someone were to get extremely sick after eating fish before they may not want to eat fish ever again. They may develop a fear of eating fish because they are afraid that it will make them sick. It may be to the extent of just smelling the fish that can stimulate a reaction such as being nauseous just from the smell of fish. An example from the text discusses how Watson and Rayner experimented with classical conditioning with a nine month old boy. They showed the boy a few objects and he showed no fear for any of the...
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