Phobias and Addictions

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Phobia and Addictions 1

Phobias and Addictions

Psy/300
April 20, 2010

Phobia and Addictions 2
Phobias and Addictions
Classical Conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training. Classical conditioning is a naturally occurring stimulus paired with a response. A previously neutral stimulus is then paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus will come to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two functions are then become the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response. The classical conditioning model of behaviorism is based upon the psychological mechanism of association (Kowalski & Weston, 2005). Classical conditioning functions through conditioning trials in which an unconditioned stimulus is repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus. Operant Conditioning, on the other hand, is a form of behavior modification that is used to either decrease or increase the likelihood that a particular behavior will occur. The process relies on the idea that if organisms respond to stimuli and that if it can be taught to associate a specific stimulus with a particular behavior, he or she will be more likely to engage in or avoid the behavior, depending on the type of stimulus involved. Gavin Lyall, the great novelist, once said, "…if God had intended men to fly He'd have given us wings" (Lyall, n.d., p. 1). Lyall's quote epitomizes the feeling that most of us experience while defying the law of gravity in an airplane. It almost seems unnatural; however, when this normal fear becomes an irrational, unfounded fear it falls into the category of aviophobia. What is more, aviophobia can be adequately understood through the psychology perspective of behaviorism, within the context of the conditions and consequences of the behavior, and best treated through several types of behavior therapy. Aviophobia is the fear of flying. This phobia can occur for...
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