Phineas Gage

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Phineas Gage is considered to be one of the severe brain injuries. Gage suffered from personality changes after the brain injury. Gage was injured when excavating rocks to create a path for railroad track. Gage and other employees were injured by rail roads during the construction work. Gage was later treated after the accident as he his brain had been damaged. The accident caused damaged to brain structures and doctors argued that Gage started behaving differently after the accident (Damasio, Grabowski &Frank, 1994). The Phineas Gage accident helped explain the role of the brain in cognitive functions. The accident revealed how the brain areas support cognitive functions. There are various brain areas that support cognitive functions. For example, the left frontal region helps in personality development. After the accident doctors examined the skull to see the lesion that caused personality change. The lesion was found in the left frontal region. The lesion affected personality development and led to loose of personality. Also, during the accident the left and right prefrontal cortices were damaged. This affected rational decision making and processing of emotions. The study of the Phineas Gage skull helped doctors understand how the brain works. It helped them associate various parts of the brain with cognitive functions (Damasio, Grabowski &Frank, 1994).

Brain is an important part of the body. Researchers claim that the brain plays an important role in the human body. Along with controlling the body functions, it also helps control the cognitive functions that differentiate human beings from other animals. Body process, thoughts and movements are controlled by the cognitive part of the brain. Cognitive functions result from the cerebrum. The cerebrum consists of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe and the occipital area. The areas carry out different functions (Damasio, Grabowski &Frank, 1994).

There are various types of cognitive functions....
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