Science is description, generalization, or law and demands a single explanation, which is philosophy. The explanation which philosophy offers is what must be the case in order for something to be as it is. Thales was an astronomer who was the first to predict an eclipse of the sun in 585 B.C. Thales said that the universe is one thing which was water, or matter. Thales lived in Miletus, then part of Greece and now present day Turkey. Herakleitos said there were four basic elements which were fire, water, earth, and air in balance. Herakleitos said the unifying factor in the universe was logos, which logic, or lawfulness. Herakleitos lived in Ephesus in 500 B.C.
Anaxagoras believed that logos, the laws regulating balance, were not basic but were formulas, concepts, information, and ideas which could not exist on their own but were the actions of a mind. Anaxagoras believed that if the universe had laws, then it had a mind. Anaxagoras lived in Athens.
Plato was a student of Socrates and started a school called the Academy. Plato believed that the mind could only think information or blueprint, but it could not initiate a universe. Plato called the acting mind a World Soul.
Aristotle was a student of Plato and taught Alexander the Great at Pella and started a school called Lyceum.
Aristotle believed that the World Soul explained the concept (mind) and actions (soul), but not the will, or intention. Aristotle believed that the universe demanded a knowing, willing, acting initiator or person: God. Aristotle lived in Athens.
The five philosophers in order are Thales, Herakleitos, Anaxagoras, Plato, and Aristotle. The three concepts dealing with metaphysics are Reality, God, and Person. The three concepts dealing with epistemology are knowledge, truth (justification-logic), and certainty. The three concepts dealing with axiology are Politics, Ethics, and Aesthetics (Good, Just, Beautiful). The methods of Science and...