Philosophy of the Mind

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Unit 6: Philosophy of the Mind
KMF 1014 Introduction to Cognitive Science

The Philosophical Approach


The oldest of all disciplines in CS




Formulating & answering questions about the
universe

Address the issues such as:




the nature of knowing (epistemology)
the mind-body distinction
the mind-brain distinction

The Philosophical Approach: Reasoning


Deductive – application of
rules of logic to statements
about the world







UNIMAS students sleep three hours
every night
Ali is a UNIMAS student
Ali sleeps three hours every night

Inductive – drawing
conclusions based on
commonalities observed in
specific instances



Maxi, the Persian cat, has four legs.
Lola, the Siamese cat, has four legs.
All cats have four legs.

Philosophy?






Greek origin - love of wisdom
 Phil (philos) = love
 Soph (sophia) = wise
The Love of Wisdom
 Combines the cognitive and the emotional
dimensions of our mind – seeking answers to
BIG questions, ones that often have more than
one possible answer, or no clear answer at all
Sample questions
 What makes a human? Is it our minds, our
bodies? Or a combination of the two?
 How do we gain knowledge & understanding?
Is it with our senses, our minds, or something
else?

Search for wisdom

Philosophy?









Ancient Greeks believed:
 wisdom did not come naturally to the human beings
 wisdom was inaccessible to all but the determined and
intellectually-capable
Philosophy is not possession of wisdom but a search for it
In some sense, we are all philosophers, we all think and
reflect in our own critical way about the question that
matter most to us
Everyone asks the important questions and tries,
however feebly, to formulate meaningful answers.
That is, everyone participates, more or less, in the
philosophical enterprise

Philosophy?


Philosophy is regarded as the conceptual inquiry
dealing with fundamental issues relating to



Life
Knowledge
Values.

The tool for philosophers are

Logic or
the Law of thoughts
 Conceptual Inquiry?
 Analyzing the meaning of concepts





Clarify concepts and analyze propositions/ statement, belief and theories

Identifying logical connections between theories
Evaluating arguments and exposing fallacies


Major task: construct valid and sound arguments

Philosophy of the Mind


The philosophy of mind is concerned with the
problems associated with the functioning of the
mind or brain. Such problems can take on many
different aspects, for instance:





Is the mind separate from the brain, or a by-product of it?
Is there such a thing as a permanent self or soul?
What is consciousness?
Is artificial intelligence possible?
Search for
Wisdom

Inquisitive Mind

Understand
ourselves better

Philosophy & Cognitive Psychology

Recap Unit 2: Cognitive Processes
Experimental Evidence
Functioning

Formation

Concepts
Categories

Propositions

Images

Memory

Representation

How do we know that something is true/real?
What is Reality?
How do we know?

What is the Nature of Reality?
What is the Nature of Knowledge?

Epistemology: How we know what we know
The study of the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge. The term derived from the Greek epistēmē (“knowledge”) and logos (“reason”),


Rationalist




The mind is primary source
of Knowledge

Rene Descartes

Empiricist


Knowledge derives ultimately
from experience & sensation

John Locke

The Rationalist View (Latin: ratio = reason)
First started by Plato but made famous by René
Descartes



French philosopher, mathematician, Founder of Modern
Philosophy and the Father of Modern Mathematics
the mind is primary source of knowledge
A point of view that states that reason plays the main role in understanding the world and obtaining knowledge.
 All...
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