Since the beginning of time philosophers have tried to explain what science is. Some theories and views have been abolished whilst others are still discussed and applied to the world today. The objective of this essay is to find out, what science and knowledge is, through research and discussion of the different views and theories of three important philosophers. Moreover it will show how it can be applied to the world today through marketing. The research is based on valid sources upheld with knowledge acquired in Philosophy of Science lectures at VIA University College. This essay will open with a short introduction of the overall picture of the philosophies of science – Logical Empiricism and Positivism. The backgrounds and views of science of Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn, and Imre Lakatos will then be presented. The different views will be discussed, assessed, and related to a marketing perspective followed by a short conclusion. |
Introduction of philosophy of science
There are different ways to define science and to interpret science. Since the time B.C., different savants have told the world about their way to see and understand science. Philosophers like Aristotle and Platon have had a big influence on the conception of science in western world.
Almost all later philosophers have got inspired of empiricism which again got triggered from Aristotle and Platon. Empiricism is a philosophically theory of knowledge which asserts that knowledge arise from experience rather than theory. From the view of empiricists, knowledge is derived from what we observe and experience. Some empiricists say that people are born as a Tabaula Rasa – an empty board- meaning that the human brain is completely blank after its birth and that people gain knowledge by experiencing the world.
Since the 20th century, some people did not see the logic in the way empiricism view the world. Their thoughts of philosophy of science were empirical, understood in a way which underlies the empirical facts of a scientific theory to be considered philosophically scientific. Another characteristic of science from the logical empiricists’ point of view is rationality. Extraneous social, physiological, or political motives like for instance, people with religious beliefs, communist convictions etc. are features of another worldview (paradigm), than the one regarded by logical empiricists or which are perceived as other non-extraneous motives. Furthermore they saw science as cumulative which means that the scientist’s knowledge and theories are facts that can be built upon in the future by other scientists. According to the logical empiricists, a method to identify anything as science, it has to be verified through observations; the statements should either be true or false. If the statement neither is true or false, it is meaningless. The logical empiricists use the DN-Model to explain a hypothesis by using an already proven theory.
Swine flu (H1N1) has the same bacteria as in normal flue.
We know that penicillin kills the bacteria’s in normal flue.
In theory, penicillin should therefore kill the bacteria in swine flu and remove the disease.
Because the DN-model can be used to explain whether a hypothesis is a scientific explanation or not, it can be more or less compatible with other justification models like “The Falsificationism” ect. The verification used by the logical empiricists was what Karl Popper argued against through his falsification-theory (REF).
Karl Popper (1902-1994) was born and raised in Vienna, Austria. As his prosperous parents had converted from Judaism to Christianity, he was brought up according to the Lutheran denomination. Karl Popper was a Marxist in his youth, but as he felt more and more disgusted with the Communist methods, he became a Social Democrat. He established a living among the working-class people -district where he...