The notion of personhood was introduced by Locke. For him the stream/continuity of consciousness defines a person. In other words the memory, since being conscious of something implies remembering it. When someone is drunk and is not co Locke diverted from the traditional understanding of the self. In dualism it is the soul, which is conscious of what he is doing, then he will not remember the event. Thus whilst being unconscious of something, one is not a person. constant and eternal, which defines one’s identity. However, he does not fully depart from that idea, since he was still a religious man and believed in a soul, although for him the soul has nothing to do with personhood. Criticisms of Locke
Reid claims that the same memory does not mean the same person. If two people had the same memory, they would not be the same person. This could be an argument in favour of qualia and the body.
Flew says a greater emphasis should be put on the body, saying that people do not talk to ‘consciousnesses in caves of flesh’. Butler argues that Locke’s argument is circular, since he claims that a person is conscious, and because it is conscious, she is a person. However, Parfit goes back to Locke in terms that the body is irrelevant, since in case of epilepsy treatment, something in the brain is cut which makes either side of the brain control either side of the body rather than jointly, and yet, although their body is not united, they are one and the same person. Hume
Hume extends Locke by creating the ontological theory which states that the object consists exclusively of a collection (or bundle) of properties, relations or tropes (attribute) – Bundle Theory. Any object is defined entirely by its properties. E.g. If you think about an apple you automatically think about its properties, its colour, its shape, its origin, its taste etc – thus one can say that the apple is nothing more than these properties. There is no substance. The same applies to the self. The self is an illusion created by memory, and one is not the same from birth to death. The mind stores ideas and the memory gives an illusion of the self. Kant
For Kant the self is constituted of noumena and phenomena.
Noumenon (“I think, I mean”) is a thing in itself (only known in mind), independent of the senses. Phenomenon is any observable occurrence.
- exists and I don’t perceive
- outside our minds
- categories shape noumenon
Freud was the founder of the psychoanalytic (from Greek psycho, soul) method of psychiatry. It is a method of investigating on the mind and the way one thinks but it also is a set of theories regarding human behaviour. It also provides a method of treatment of psychological illness. Freud is probably the main contributor to the drive theory.
Freud points out that many problems of adults are rooted in the childhood and drew the concept of Psychosexual development:
Oral phase (0-1 years): Mouth is the erogenous zone.
Anal phase (1-3 years): Bowel and bladder elimination are erogenous. Phallic phase (4-6 years): Genitals are erogenous.
Latency phase (7-10 years until puberty): Dormant sexual feelings are erogenous. Genital phases (11+ years, puberty and beyond): Sexual interests are mature.
Freud argued that the psyche is constituted in three parts, the id, the ego and the super-ego. Freud argues that the id is responsible for uncoordinated instinctual trends (i.e. basic drives), the ego is responsible for the organised and realistic part of the psyche (i.e. seeks to please the id’s drive in realistic ways that will give an overall benefit) and the moralising instance is the super-ego (i.e. it aims for perfection and contains conscience, morality). The model holds that the id lays in the unconscious while the super-ego and ego can only be partly consciously accessed.
Freud’s concept of the Oedipus complex describes a group of mostly unconscious desires to possess the parent of...