Philosophy: Logic and God

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During the whole second semester in our philosophy, we had tackled the different arguments that were made by different philosophers which concerns about the existence of God. Its aim is to deepen our understanding of certain religious concepts and beliefs as it tries to critically analyze and examine through the method of philosophical inquiry. Philosophy of religion does not simply study what we believe but more significantly, subject these beliefs to rigorous rational criticism and assessment. Anselm’s Ontological Argument is an ideal of a purely analytic and speculative reasoning. It is a “priori argument” which attempts to show that the existence of God depends on how we define “God”. It is a faith that seeks understanding and presented his argument by showing that his faith is not founded on blind obedience but it is supported by reason. The second argument was the cosmological argument which is based on inferences from the existence of dependent beings in the universe. It tries to show that there is being, God, on which everything else depends. St. Thomas formulated the five ways where God’s existence can be proved and many criticisms have been made in his argument. Next is the teleological argument which is based on the apparent order and design of the cosmos and the purposive nature of things in the world. Paley’s proof for the existence of God begins with what we can promptly observe in the rational world of natural processes. He uses the watch to compare with the universe. According to him, there is someone behind all those things around us. Cardinal John Henry Newman is one of the philosophers who made the “Argument of Conscience” which is an earnest attempt to lead people to the truth of God in terms of living, personal, and passionate way, rather than the way of formal and syllogistic reasoning. Conscience is the voice of God in the soul. There are two kinds of assent, the notional assent which derived through rational inference and the real assent...
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