philosophy

Topics: Philosophy, Ethics, Political philosophy Pages: 10 (3050 words) Published: November 10, 2014
BARRUNDA, Diamond R. November 11, 2014
BSAT22FA1/HUM001A

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group" The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom".[5][6][7] The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras. Philosophy, which literally means “the love of wisdom,” is one of the oldest disciplines in history. There are many ideas about philosophers and what they do. Some have even considered the field to be a science that deals with logic and reason. Either way, many famous philosophers have made their contributions known to the world through their writings and their students. Below is a list of the greatest thinkers of all time along with their most important theories about human nature and other ponderings of the world. Philosophy, which literally means “the love of wisdom,” is one of the oldest disciplines in history. There are many ideas about philosophers and what they do. Some have even considered the field to be a science that deals with logic and reason. Either way, many famous philosophers have made their contributions known to the world through their writings and their students. Below is a list of the greatest thinkers of all time along with their most important theories about human nature and other ponderings of the world.

Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Famous For: The Communist Manifesto, co-founder and father of Socialism & Communism Karl Marx is better known as the “father of socialism and communism,” one follows the other. Marx has been labeled as a “revolutionary socialist” for his belief in what has been called dictatorship of the proletariat. In addition to espousing his own philosophies, he was also a sociologist, economist, journalist, and historian. Voltaire (1694-1778)

Famous For: his philosophical wit
French philosopher François-Marie Arouet was a well known during the 18th century. He is better known under his pseudonym, Voltaire. Voltaire was an advocate of some of the most basic freedoms, he believed in the freedom of expression, religion and voiced this through his witty writing. One of his favorite targets was the Catholic church. Socrates (c. 469-399 BC)

Famous For: the Socratic Method of logic and a founder of Western philosophy His story began in his hometown of Athens, Greece but unfolded through the writings of his students and fellow philosophers. The field of ethics was the specialty of Socrates and introduced a concept that has been dubbed as elenchus, or the Socratic method. He contributed much to the field of logic and epistimology. Plato (c. 428-348 BC)

Famous For: Platonic idealism & the theory of forms
Athenian native Plato, and his role in western philosophy can be traced back to when he was student of Socrates. He also excelled in mathematics, logic, ethics, rhetoric, and religion. He founded the Academy in Athens. John Locke (1632-1704)

Famous For: theory of mind & Father of Classical Liberalism
The effect of English philosopher John Locke has on the world reverberates to this day. His part on the idea of the social contract theory was one he shared with Sir Francis Bacon. The likes of Rousseau, Voltaire, even American revolutionaries have been influenced by his writings. He also offered the theory of mind wherein he states that knowledge is something you are not born with, but learn and experience. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986)

Famous For: existential feminism & ethics of ambiguity
Simone de Beauvoir is viewed as a philosopher, but she...
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