January 30, 2013
1. According to Cartesian dualism, what is it to be in a mental state? The doctrine that mental states are states of an immaterial substances that interacts with the body is called Cartesian dualism.
2. What reasons does Descartes give for believing that he does not have knowledge of the external world? To determine whether there is such an Archimedean point from which our knowledge of the external world could be derived, Descartes tried to determine whether there are any nonmathematical propositions that could not e doubted.
3. What reasons does Descartes give for believing that the does know that he thinks and that he exists? He claims appearances can be deceiving ,for there is at least one thing that he cannot doubt, namely, the fact that he is doubting .but if it’s certain that he is doubting it’s also certain that he exists, for he can’t doubt unless he exist. thus, Descartes conclude that he knows at least one thing” I think, therefore I am”.
4. What is Descartes’ argument from conceivability?
He claims that because he can conceive of himself existing without a body, his body is not essential to him.
5. What is Descartes’ argument from divisibility?
He claims that because his body s divisible but his mind is not, his mind is not identical to his body.
What is the principle of the causal closure of the physical? No physical effect has a nonphysical cause.
6. What is the law of the conservation of energy?
7. What is the epiphenomenalism?
The doctrine that the mind is an ineffective by product of physical processes. 8. What is the problem of other minds?
The philosophical problem of explaining how it is possible to know that there are other minds in the world.