Sophieʼs world philosophical terms
EXISTENTIALISM – man is responsible for his own actions; existence is more important than essence EPICUREANISM – pleasure is highest good and pain is greatest evil STOICISM – accepts status quo; indifference to pleasure or pain POWER PHILOSOPHY – might makes right DARWINISM – evolution caused by natural selection; survival of the fittest NATURALISM – all events can be explained by natural causes and scientific laws EMPIRICISM – all knowledge comes from what can be perceived by the senses SOCRATIC METHOD – method of teaching that uses discussion and questioning to reach a logical solution foreseen by the instructor FREE WILL – doctrine that conduct of the individual is the result of personal choice, not divine forces or fate ROMANTICS – characterized by idealism, emotion, passion; celebrates freedom of spirit and common man ENLIGHTMENT – faith in human reason and skepticism for inherent truths PREDETERMINATION / PREDESTINATION / FATALISM – belief that individualʼs actions are preordained by fate or divine guidance; no free will HUMANISM – system in which human interests, values, dignity predominate UTILITARIANISM – greatest good for greatest number
cc. 470 - 399 BC SOCRATES Greece Rationalist Utilized Socratic method of teaching “One thing only I know, and that is that I know nothing.” “He who knows good will do good.” c.428 - 348BC PLATO Greece Rationalist / Dualist Known for the Myth of the Cave Student of Socrates “A state that does not educate and train women is like a man who only trains his right arm.” 384 - 322BC ARISTOTLE Greece Empiricist Student of Plato Europeʼs first great biologist (organized / classified) “Man can only achieve happiness by using all his abilities and capabilities.” 1596 - 1650 DESCARTES France Rationalist / Dualist Father of modern philosophy and analytical geometry “I think, therefore I am.” (Cogito, ergo sum.) 1632 - 1677 SPINOZA Criticized established religion Holland...
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