Philosophers profiles A2 philosophy

Topics: Soul, Omnipotence, Metaphysics Pages: 5 (610 words) Published: December 29, 2014
Revision - Philosopher’s and their views 
A.J Ayer
weak verification, “mountains on the other side of the moon” Hick
-eschatological verification “we’ll know at the end”
-epistemic distance between us and God
-Universal salvation
-Replica theory
-traducianism (soul inherited from parents)
-Price’s mental world= consistent
Price
-“mental world” in which we live

Karl Popper
-falsification principle, true until proven otherwise
Antony Flew
-parable of the two gardeners, death of a thousand qualifications - historical evidence, tested experience
-God could have made us free, but do the right thing
R.M Hare
-bliks, lunatics
Basil Mitchell
-resistance leader, rel people may accept points, but view won’t change Maimonedes
-via negative avoids anthropomorphism of God!
Scotus
-analogy as a means of describing God= vague
Aquinas
-Analogy of attribution(good bread=good baker)/ analogy of proportion (it’s all relative) -God cant do “non actions” like 2+2=5
- God is timeless, REASON, we get his nature via revelation
Tillich
- symbols unlock things from God
Bultmann
-demythologising stories
Wittgenstein
-picture theory of language, language games
James
-physcology, empiricism,pluralism, pragmatism
-passive, ineffable, noetic, transient
-Philosopher/ Phychologist
-rel exp has mental dimension, not just this
-truth is in the results!
Otto
-Wholly Other
Schliemacher
-emotional experiences
Buber
-I thou relationship
Feuerbach
- God is man in large letters
Freud
- God stems from childhood
Jung
-rel exp is a result of collective unconscious
Alston
-rel exp may be the same as normal exp?
Broad
-blind society
Hume
-“transgression of a natural law” = miracles
-miracle occurred Vs witnesses mistaken? (whats more likely?) -practical case against miracles (insane,supernatural, ignorant,pluralism) Holland
-“too coincidental to be a coincidence”
G.Moore
- no one did it = God did it!
Gunkel
-look at CONTEXT of miracle stories
Swinburne
-physical traces of miracles!
-principle of credulity/testimony
-laws of nature can be relaxed- God like a parent
-God is “backwardly eternal...he is forwardly eternal”
-omniscience is knowing everything LOGICALLY possible to know -need freedom to damn ourselves
-everlasing, God moves in time, only do what is logically possible! C.S Lewis
-supernatural elements to miracles
- 2+2=5 – NOT PROPER THINGS
Wiles
-single miracle = creation
-partisan/arbitrary
Kierkgaard
-“leap of faith”
Luther
-“philosophy is the devil’s whore”
Augustine
- use reason carefully
-humans free will, God foresees
-soul deciding, monist, privation, free will
Iranaeus
-soul making, dualist, spiritual growth, free will
Anselm
-faith first then reason
-ontological argument
-god is ultimate perfection
Cullman
- God lasts for “endless duration” NOT timeless
Whitehead, Hartshorne
-process theology
Descartes
- God can do everything, logically possible or not
-can doubt body not soul (what is doing the thinking)
Anthony Kenny
-narrow omnipotence, only logically possible things
-“eternal present= incoherent”
Plantinga
-God limits power to maintain free will
- beliefs don’t need rational justification
- omnipotent god may equal God limiting his powers
Geach
-almighty god
Ockham
-Ockhams Razor
-Absolute&Ordained powers of god
Boethius
-Lady philosophy
-lib of spontaneity/indifference
-divine free will VS freedom of human will
-god is timeless
Plato
- forms, perfection
-dualism- body soul distinction
-arguement for knowledge (K is innate)
-cycles of opposites (light needs dark to exist, body needs soul) Calvin
-humans, sinful
-predestination
Kant
- faith over knowledge
-we cannot know God empirically
Dawkins
-materialist, neo-darwinist
-soul one (traditional soul), soul two ( intellectual, not separate to body) -legacy
Aristotle
-soul is not “extra”
- plant,animal, human soul
-rationality survies death
Ryle
- soul belief...
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