Philippine literature is the literature associated with the Philippines and includes the legends of prehistory, and the colonial legacy of the Philippines. Most of the notable literature of the Philippines was written during the Spanish period and the first half of the 20th century in Spanish language. Philippine literature is written in Spanish, English, Tagalog, and/or other native Philippine language.
DEFINITION OF LITERATURE
The word literature is derived from the Latin term Litera which means letter. It has been defined by various writers. Because literature deals with ideas, thoughts and emotions of man, literature can be said to be the story of man. Man’s loves, griefs, thoughts, dreams, and aspirations coached in a beautiful language is Literature.
In order to know the history of a nation’s spirit, one must read its literature. Brother Azurin defines Literature that it expresses the feelings of people to society, to the government, to his surroundings, to his Fellowmen and to his Divine Creator.( Webster defines literature as anything that is printed, as long as it is related to the ideas and feelings of people, whether it is true, or just a product of one’s imagination.Salazar and Nazal says that true literature is a piece of written work which is undying.
In PANITIKANG PILIPINO written by Atienza, Ramos, Salazar and Nazal, it says that true literature is a piece of written work which is undying. It expresses the feelings and emotions of people in response to his everyday efforts to live, to be happy n his environment and, after struggles, to reach his Creator. PERIODS OF PHILIPPINE LITERATURE
I. PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD (--BC to 1564)
1. Based on oral traditions
2. Crude on ideology and phraseology
B. Literary Forms
1. Oral Literature
a. Riddles (bugtong) – battle of wits among participants Tigmo – CebuPaktakon – Ilonggo
Patotdon - Bicol
b. Proverbs (salawikain) – wise sayings that contain a metaphor used to teach as a food for thought c. Tanaga - a mono-riming heptasyllabic quatrain expressing insights and lessons on life is "more emotionally charged than the terse proverb and thus has affinities with the folk lyric." 2. Folk Songs
It is a form of folk lyric which expresses the hopes and aspirations, the people's lifestyles as well as their loves. These are often repetitive and sonorous, didactic and naive a. Hele or oyayi – lullaby
b. Ambahan (Mangyan) – 7-syllable per line poem that are about human relationships and social entertainment c. Kalusan (Ivatan) - work songs that depict the livelihood of the people d. Tagay (Cebuano and Waray) – drinking song
e. Kanogan (Cebuano) – song of lamentation for the dead 3. Folk Tales
a. Myths – explain how the world was created, how certain animals possess certain characteristics, why some places have waterfalls, volcanoes, mountains, flora or fauna b. Legends – explain the origin of things
Why the Pineapple Has Eyes
The Legend of Maria Makiling
c. Fables – used animal characters and allegory
d. Fantastic stories – deal with underworld characters such as “tiyanak”, “aswang”, “kapre” and others 4. Epics
These are “narratives of sustained length based on oral tradition revolving around supernatural events or heroic deeds” (Arsenio Manuel) Examples: Lam-ang (Ilocano)Hinilawod (Panay)
Kudaman (Palawan)Darangen (Maranao)
II. SPANISH COLONIZATION PERIOD (1565 – 1863)
1. It has two distinct classifications: religious and secular 2. It introduced Spanish as the medium of communication B. Literary Forms
1. Religious Literature - Religious lyrics written by ladino poets or those versed in both Spanish and Tagalog were included in...