‘Clean Air Act’
Pamela V. Apacible
Submitted in Partial Fullfiment of the requirements in English IV .
The Clean Air Act is the comprehensive federal law that regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile sources. Base on my reasearch, this law authorizes Environmental Protection Agency(EPA ) to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public health and public welfare and to regulate emissions of hazardous air pollutants.One of the goals this Act was to set and achieve NAAQS in every state by 1975 in order to address the public health and welfare risks posed by certain widespread air pollutants. The setting of these pollutant standards was coupled with directing the states to develop state implementation plans (SIPs), applicable to appropriate industrial sources in the state, in order to achieve these standards. The 1990, CAA established a risk-based program under which only a few standards were developed. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments revised Section 112 to first require issuance of technology-based standards for major sources and certain area sources. "Major sources" are defined as a stationary source or group of stationary sources that emit or have the potential to emit 10 tons per year or more of a hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year or more of a combination of hazardous air pollutants
CONTENT OF THE TOPIC
Air pollution is a significant drain on the health, economy,and environment of the UnitedStates. Adverse health affects rangefrom mild eye irritation to death and birth defects. Reduced cropyields, "dead" lakes, and crumbling monuments are also caused byair pollution.Because of all these deleterious effects, theUnited States has been progressively expanding its efforts tocontrol pollution since the first city smoke control ordinances
were passed in 1881.The first major national strides were made in 1970 with the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency and the 1970 Clean Air Act. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are a landmark effort to reduce air pollution through a variety of instruments including the use of a market based system of tradeable pollution "permits" under Title IV and Title V. Recently, however,enforcement has lagged because of Congressional resistance.
The American public is becoming increasingly aware of air pollution as a national and international problem.Everyone familiar with hot, quiet summer days in almost any large urban area is familiar with smog's visual blight. However, air pollution is not constrained to urban environments or even to hot summer days;it is an ongoing problem for many regions. While air pollution is visible locally, its sources are a combination of a wide variety of local and extra-local pollutants.Air pollution is far more than an impairment of visibility. It causes significant health problems, damages land and aquatic environments, primarily through the phenomena know as "acid rain,"damages construction materials, paper, leather, and textiles.Despite the damage caused by pollution, a combination of a general societal dependence on the sources of pollution and the specific, mostly economic concerns of polluters, inhibits government's willingness and ability to implement some of the more austere measures espoused by environmentalists.Nevertheless,government response to pollution has also escalated culminating in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.This set of amendments is a comprehensive approach to many sources of pollution and supports several different enforcement and implementation mechanisms.
Effects of Air Pollution
Air pollution originates from a variety of natural sources such as forest fires,...