Topic: The World and The Philippines in Rizal’s Time
Instructor: Mrs. Gemma B. Somera
Reporters: Flordeliza Ancheta
Sally Jean Domenden
Course/Year: BEED III
THE WORLD AND THE PHILIPPINES IN RIZAL’S TIME
- Rizal was born and raised in a period of massive changes in Europe, Spain and the Philippines.
- During this era, the glory and power of Spain had waned in both in her colonies and the world.
- Social scientists marked this period as the birth of modern life as well as the birth of many nation states around the world. The birth of modernity was precipitated by three great revolutions around the world: the Industrial Revolution in England, the French Revolution and the American Revolution.
AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT
is a term used to describe a time in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the 18th century in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority.
The Philippines During Rizal’s Time
These are the relevant events and conditions of the Philippines before, during and after Rizal’s time which contributed to the development of Filipino nationalism. SOCIAL SYSTEM
-Before the Spanish conquest in 1565, Filipino had their own indigenous culture, government and religion. -The Spanish colonizers forced them to accept foreign culture and Catholicism. -Filipinos lost their ancestral lands to the colonial masters by way of the encomienda system. “Limpieza de Sangre”
A doctrine that means Purity of Blood which were brought by the Spaniards into the Philippines, thereby creating a social ranking among various groups, namely: Spanish peninsulares, insulares, Spanish mestizos, the town ruling class, the native elites, the Chinese mestizos and the indios referring to the natives.
-Spain governed the Philippines through the Ministry of the Colonies (Ministro de Ultramar) based in Madrid. -The Governor-general headed the central government who was appointed by the King of Spain. He was the King’s representative in governmental matters and was the Alcaldia or provincial government who was headed by an alcalde mayor. -The pueblo, composed of the barangays was the local government unit. -The gobernadorcillo was the chief executive and chief judge. -The smallest political unit was the barangay (barrio) headed by a cabeza de barangay. -The guardia civil was a corps of native police led by Spanish officers.
-The first schools established were parochial schools with the Spanish missionaries as teachers. Fear of God was emphasized and obedience to the friars was instilled in the minds of the people. Teacher discrimination against Filipinos was present in the higher levels of learning. Educational Decree of 1863
The majority of the friars assigned to implement this decree were against the teaching of Spanish in the colony. FRAILROCRACIA
-Meaning “Rule of the Friars”.
-An invincible government spawned in the colony which was practiced by almost absolute monarchial states. 1849-1898
- 45 governor-generals had been assigned to the colony and each one of them sought the counsel of the friars.
OPENING OF THE PHILIPPINES TO WORLD COMMERCE
-In 1834, Spain, following the economic policy of other European countries, officially opened Manila to world commerce. 1834 to 1873
- more ports were opened to foreign trading like Sual, Iloilo, Zamboanga, Cebu and Legazpi. This stimulated vigorous economic activity in the colony that brought prosperity to some Filipinos and as a result, there emerged a new class: the Filipino middle class.
OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL
November 17, 1869
- Suez Canal was opened to international shipping.
- 103 miles long connecting the Mediterranean to the Gulf of Suez...