1. Explain how the British occupation of the country opened the eyes of the people in certain regions to the idea of freedom and expulsion of the Spaniards?
During this period, the Filipinos discovered how weak Spain was when it comes to armory when the British defeated them. Eventually, Archbishop Manuel Rojo surrendered Manila and Cavite thus exposing them furthermore as to how vulnerable they were.
2. Why did the economic plans of Governor-General Basco fail?
His plans failed because of his establishment of government monopolies. These monopolies benefited only the government and not the people. There was much corruption because the government was the only one who can transact business and having the exclusive right to purchase, classify and sell all the products locally or even abroad made the people poorer.
3. Why were the Spanish authorities in the Philippines opposed to the education of the Filipinos? The Spanish authorities opposed the education of the Filipinos because as they feared it, Filipinos will come to learn about their rights of equality.
4. Explain how the middle class arose. Who composed the middle class? In 1834 the King of Spain opened Manila to foreign traders, thus starting the development of manufacturing and agriculture in the country. Many crops and other products from different regions were produced. Many ports were also opened including the introduction of the first modern machinery – called the sugar refinery. This started to improve the lives of the inquilinos or tenants in the haciendas as their families started to acquire wealth. They became the middle class, a group below the aristocratic Spanish officials and religious orders but higher or above the poor and uneducated Indios.
5. Explain how the opening of the Suez Canal affected the educated Filipinos. With the opening of the Suez Canal, travel from Manila to Spain was shortened. Because of this, there was an influx of progressive books and periodicals that circulated in the country, thus bringing in modern technology. Also, many Spaniards with progressive ideas migrated to the country influencing the educated Filipinos with their subversive ideas and activities who now clamored for changes in the administration of the colony.
6. What was the effect of the migration of liberal Spaniards on the educated Filipinos and mestizos? With the migration of the liberal Spaniards, the educated Filipinos were exposed to their subversive ideas and activities. And later on they were encouraged to go to Europe to continue their studies and prove that they were the equal of the Spaniards.
7. How did the Spanish Revolution of 1868 affect the events in the Philippines? The Spanish Revolution of 1868 affected the events in the Philippines by putting into practice the liberal principles of the revolutionists of Spain.
8. What were the reforms of Governor-General Carlos Maria de la Torre that endeared him to the educated Filipinos? The reforms of Governor-General Carlos Maria de la Torre that endeared him to the educated Filipinos were the abolishment of censorship of the press, removal of flogging as punishment and solving the problem of agrarian unrest in Cavite.
9. Why was liberalism in the Philippines short-lived? Why was a reactionary governor-general sent to the Philippines? Liberalism was short-lived in the Philippines when the Republic of Spain ended and the monarchy was restored. Governor-General Rafael de Izquierdo was sent in order to bring back autocratic rule, thus censorship of the press and restrictions on freedom of speech were restored. All those who favored Governor-General de la Torre were considered suspects that were spied upon.
10. Explain what is meant by secularization. How did this lead to Filipinization? Secularization was a campaign meant for Filipinos, Spanish mestizos or Chinese mestizos the right to administer the parishes. The...