1. About the author
National Centennial Commission (Philippines)
Dr. Salvador H. Laurel, Chairman
(November 18, 1928 – January 27, 2004), also known as Doy Laurel, was Vice President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992 under Corazon Aquino. Before that, he briefly served as Aquino's first (and only) Prime Minister from February 25 to March 25 of 1986. He was a foremost leader of the United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO), the political party that toppled the Marcos dictatorship and restored democracy to the Philippines during the People Power Revolution of 1986. Laurel is the fifth son of President José P. Laurel, president of the second Philippine Republic. He was born to a family whose illustrious lineage spans generations of nationalists who distinguished themselves as public servants. His grandfather, Judge Sotero Remoquillo Laurel was a delegate to the Malolos Congress and Secretary of the Interior in the first Philippine Revolutionary government under President Emilio Aguinaldo.He first enrolled at Centro Escolar de Señoritas (1933–35) then Paco Elementary School (1935–36) followed by Justo Lukban Elementary School (1936–1937) and he graduated from elementary at Ateneo de Manila in 1941. He graduated from high school at De La Salle College High School in 1946.Doy’s father wanted him to experience a public school education so he enrolled him first in the Paco Elementary School (1935–36) and then the Justo Lukban Elementary School (1936–37). In June 1937 he was admitted to the Jesuit-run Ateneo de Manila Grade School. During the Japanese occupation Ateneo de Manila was closed down by the Japanese for the reason that it was run by Americans. This prompted Laurel to enroll in De La Salle High School also located in Manila. On September 27, 1941, on his first year in high school, he received 2nd honors with a general average of 93.4. Barely three months later had his studies come to an abrupt halt with the outbreak of World War II on December 8, 1941.
Cesar E. A Virata, Vice Chairman
He was former Prime Minister of the Philippines from 1981-1986 under the Interim Batasang Pambansa and the Regular Batasang Pambansa. One of the Philippines' business leaders and leading technocrats, he served as Finance Minister from 1970 during the Marcos regime and also through election became Prime Minister in 1981. He concurrently was Finance Minister throughout the 80's. He is the grandnephew of the first Philippine President, Emilio Aguinaldo.He had a term as Minister of Finance from 1970 to 1986. It was during this time that the Philippines became economically strong through healthy trade and budgetary surpluses. However, other studies show budgetary deficits during the same period (PIDS, Budget Deficits, 2004, particularly during the later years of the Marcos regime. These deficits were precipitated by the oil crises' and the mass protests against the Marcos regime (supported by the international financial community) following the assassination of opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr.He was replaced as prime minister, eventually through revolution, by Salvador Laurel. Laurel became the Prime Minister on February 25, 1986, through the appointment of Corazon Aquino. The position was abolished one month later by Proclamation No. 3 of Aquino, and confirmed later by the 1987 Constitution.He is married to Phylita Joy Gamboa, a popular stage actress, and has three children: Steven Cesar, a businessman, Gillian Joyce, an international policy analyst, and Michael Dean, a doctor specializing in infectious diseases. He holds an MBA from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Virata is also an accomplished tennis player.
2. Main Topic and Summary
Philippine Revolution: The Making of a Nation
The main stream of influx of revolutionary ideas came at the start of the 19th century when the country was opened for world trade. In 1809, first English firms were established in Manila...
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