Philippine History

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  • Topic: Ferdinand Magellan, Cebu, Philippines
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THE ADVENT OF EUROPEAN DISCOVERY AND CONQUEST
FERDINAND MAGELLAN
* A Portuguese explorer who is known as the first circumnavigator of the Earth. * Born in 1480 at Saborosa/Sabrosa in Villa Real, Province of Traz os Montes, Portugal. * His first stint as a maritime explorer began in 1505 when he offered his services to be a part of Francisco d’Almeida’s expedition. * Ferdinand Magellan renounced his citizenship and offered his services to the King of Spain.

TREATY OF TORDESILLAS
* The division of the world was ordered by Pope Alexander VI as a result of the unending “sea rivalry” between Portugal and Spain. * Important provisions of the treaty:
* At a distance of 370 degrees west of the Cape Verde Islands, the treaty provided an imaginary line drawn from north to south. All lands that will be discovered east of this imaginary line would be owned by Portugal and those on the west would belong to Spain. * If Spain discovers lands that are within the demarcation line of Portugal, they should be turned over to the latter. On the other hand, if Portugal discovered lands that are not within their demarcation line, they should be turned over to Spain. * Pope Alexander VI, being a Spaniard, ordered that no Portuguese ships shall be sent to lands belonging to Spain even for the purpose of trade and commerce.

FERDINAND MAGELLAN’S SHIPS

TRINIDAD
* Flagship of the expedition
* Commanded by Ferdinand Magellan

CONCEPCION
* Commanded by Gaspar de Quesada

VICTORIA
* Commanded by Luis de Mendoza

SANTIAGO
* Commanded by Juan Serrano

SAN ANTONIO
* Commanded by Juan de Cartagena

FERDINAND MAGELLAN’S EXPEDITION
First Event
* Magellan was given hundreds of Spanish crews to help him fulfill his expedition goals. They heard Mass in the Church of Santa Lucia de la Victoria (Santa Maria de la Victoria de Triana) and the captain of his ships as well as their crews took an oath of allegiance to Magellan as their commander-in-chief.

Second Event
* On September 20, 1519, Ferdinand Magellan and the rest of his men began their expedition. The ships sailed down from Quadalquivir River to San Lucar de Barrameda. After two months of difficult voyage, hardship, and hunger, the expedition reached what is now Pernambuco in Brazil. From here, Magellan continued his voyage to Rio de Janeiro and reached Rio de la Plata in February, 1520.

Third Event
* A mutiny was staged by Ferdinand Magellan’s crew, namely Quesada (Concepcion ship), Mendoza (Victoria ship), and Cartagena (San Antonio ship). Magellan managed to stop their attempt to take control of the whole expedition and eventually punished the perpetrators of the mutiny.

Fourth Event
* The Santiago was totally wrecked due to the extreme condition and vastness of the Pacific Ocean. On October 21, 1520, a strait was discovered by Ferdinand Magellan presently called the Strait of Magellan.

Fifth Event
* In March, 1521, Ferdinand Magellan reached the Ladrones Islands. They spent some time to rest and procure fresh food and water. Ladrones means “thieves” in Spanish.

THE REDISCOVERY OF THE PHILIPPINES
* On March 17, 1521, Magellan and his men saw the mountains of what is now called Samar (Agoncillo and Mangahas, 2010). * Magellan and his men made their first landfall on a Philippine island called Homonhon on March 18, 1521. * They continued their navigation and reached the islet of Limasawa. It was governed by Rajah Kulambu. * Magellan and Rajah Kulambu secured a relationship and eventually sealed their friendship through a blood compact called the sanduguan on March 29, 1521. * The first mass in the Philippines was celebrated on March 31, 1521 on the coast of Limasawa which was officiated by Fr. Pedro de Valderrama. * Magellan, together with Rajah Kulambu, reached the island of Cebu on April 7, 1521. Rajah Humabon (ruler of Cebu) accepted...
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