•It refers to the particular group of people which is the administrative bureaucracy of a society at a given time. Each successive government is composed of a specialized and privileged body of individuals, who monopolize political decision – making and are separated by status and organization from the population as a whole. Their function is to enforce existing laws, make new ones, and arbitrate conflicts via their monopoly on violence. In some societies, this group is often a self-perpetuating or hereditary class. In other societies, such as democracies, the political roles remain, but there is frequent turnover of the people actually filling the positions.
2.Kinds of government
•Dictatorial – is one that is run with unlimited power by the head of the government or head of the state. It is also defined as an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by an individual, the dictator, without hereditary ascension. •Democratic – is a government elected by the people and democratic government is a co-operative. The people have rights to take part in the decision of the government and they can change parliament members anytime they want. •Aristocratic – is identical to Oligarchy as it means a tiny privileged class runs the country while all the other citizens have little to no power.
3.What is a state?
•It is more then a government. Government change, but states endure. It is the means of rule over a defined or sovereign territory. It is comprised of an executive, a bureaucracy, courts and other institutions but above all it can levies taxes and operate a military and police force.
4.Discuss the following
•People - fundamentally comprises of a permanent population over which it exercises its unlimited authority. The nature of the state depends upon the quality and quantity of its population. No ideal size of population can be stated. Aristotle stated "A population must be large enough to be self-sufficient, but small enough to be well-governed." A good population makes a good state; a bad one, a bad state. •Territory - refers to land, surrounding water up to 3 nautical miles, as well as the air above the land and water. Nomadic settlements did not possess any permanent territory. •Government - it is a body of a few people who administer the population and are meant to express the will of the state. The government has limited power, as opposed to the state's unlimited authority. The government is subject to change and is bound to obey will of the people as well as state. To equate the Government with State is a dangerous, yet common mistake. •Sovereignty - it is the soul of a state. It implies that the state is independent from external interference, as well as can maintain integrity within itself.
5.Distinguish states from nation
•In political science, a nation refers to a group of people who feel bound into a single body by shared culture, values, folkways religion and language while a state just refers to a patch of land with sovereign government. States often coincide with nations. States that overlap multiple nations tend to have civil wars.
6.Distinguish states from government
•A state is an entity that occupies a definite geographic area, has a certain culture, people, language history and the like. The term state is used to distinguish a certain territory from another one based on these factors. It is an independent and sovereign entity that can be distinguished from the other states and has certain administrative tasks to be carried out for its proper functioning. These administrative tasks are carried out by the government. This entity has the right to exercise power over the territory and the people. State is the territory in which the government can practice its authority. A state is like an organization and the government is like the management team.
7.Distinguish presidential from parliamentary government
•A presidential system,...