Philip of Macedon

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King Philip of Macedon ruled Macedonia from 356 till 336 BC. He was born in Pella which was the capital of the Ancient Macedonian Kingdom, as the youngest son of King Amyntas III. Once his father had past away, Macedonia slowly fell apart as his older brothers and future kings Alexander II and Peridiccas III, ineffectively fought against continues attacks by the neighbouring cities, Thracians, Illyrians, and Greeks. Philip II was a hostage of the Greeks at Thebes, between 368 and 365 BC. While he was captivated, he noted the military techniques. Once he returned to Macedonia he instantly set out in helping his brother Perdiccas (who at that time was the king of Macedon) to strengthen the Macedonian Army. Philip of Macedon had taken the throne in 359 BC after the death of Philips older brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III after they were killed in trying to free north west Macedonia against the Illyrians. Macedonia was in one of the most difficult times since the country was almost at the edge of collapse and the neighbours of Greece ready to put an end to the country's existence.

Even though Philip was in this immense danger, he did not give up on his country. He removed threats which were internal and secured safety of his kingdom by firmly establishing himself on the throne. He had persuaded the Thracian king with gifts to kill the first pretender to the throne and he defeated the second pretender who was supported by the Greek power of Athens in a battle. He also had made a treaty with the Athenians to hand over the city, Amphipolis to the Macedonians which was on the coast of the country.

Within two decades, Philip of Macedon changed the face of Greece. The Greeks of the city states considered the Macedonians to be uncivilised, but in 20 years Philip had united and transformed them into the most respectable and feared military machine Greece had ever seen. But the key to his new professional army was a core of engineers which Philip...
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