The word literature is derived from the Latin term litera which means letter. It has been defined differently by various writers In PANITIKING PILIPINO written by Atienza, Ramos, Salazar and Nazal, it says that “true literature is a piece of written work which is undying. It expresses the feelings and emotions of people in response to his everyday efforts to live, to be happy n his environment and, after struggles, to reach his Creator.” I. PROSE
There are many types of prose. These include the following: a. Novels. A long narrative divided into chapters and events are taken from true-to-life stories. Example: WITHOUT SEEING THE DAWN by Stevan Javellana
b. Short story. This is a narrative involving one or more characters, one plot and one single impression.
Example: THE LAUGHTER OF MY FATHER by Carlos Bulosan
c. Plays. This is presented on a stage, is divided into acts and each act has many scenes. Example: THIRTEEN PLAYS by Wilfredo M. Guerrero
d. Legends. These are fictitious narratives, usually about origins. Example: THE BIKOL LEGEND by Pio Duran
e. Fables. These are also fictitious and they deal with animals and inanimate things that speak and act like people and their purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold their ways and attitudes. Example: THE MONKEY AND THE TURTLE
f. Anecdotes. These are merely products of the writer’s imagination and the main aim is to bring out lessons to the reader.
Example: THE MOTH AND THE LAMP
g. Essay. This expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a particular problem or event. The best example of this is the Editorial page of a newspaper. h. Biography. This deals with the life of a person which may be about himself, his autobiography or that of others. Example: CAYETANO ARELLANO by Socorro O. Albert
i. News. This is a report of everyday events in society, government, science and industry, and accidents, happening nationally or not. j. Oration. This is a formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be spoken in public. It appeals to the intellect, to the will or to the emotions of the audience. II. POETRY
There are three types of poetry and these are the following: A. Narrative Poetry. This form describes important events in life either real or imaginary. The different varieties are:
1. Epic. This is an extended narrative about heroic exploits often under supernatural control.
Example: THE HARVEST SONG OF ALIGUYON translated in English by Amador T. Daguio
2. Metrical Tale. This is a narrative which is written in verse and can be classified either as a ballad or a metrical romance. Examples: BAYANI NG BUKID by Al Perez
HERO OF THE FIELDS by Al Perez
3. Ballads. Of the narrative poems, this is considered the shortest and simplest. It has a simple structure and tells of a single incident. There are also variations of these: love ballads, war ballads, and sea ballads, humorous, moral, and historical or mythical ballads. In the early time, this referred to a song accompanying a dance. B. Lyric Poetry. Originally, this refers to that kind of poetry meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre, but now, this applies to any type of poetry that expresses emotions and feelings of the poet. They are usually short, simple and easy to understand. 1. Folksongs (Awiting Bayan). These are short poems intended to be sung. The common theme is love, despair, grief, doubt, joy, hope and sorrow. Example: CHIT-CHIRIT-CHIT
2. Sonnets. This is a lyric poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, a feeling, or an idea. These are two types: the Italian and the Shakespearean. Example: SANTANG BUDS by Alfonso P. Santos
3. Elegy. This is a lyric poem which expresses feelings of grief and melancholy, and whose theme is death. Example: THE LOVER’S DEATH by Ricaredo Demetillo
4. Ode. This is a poem of a noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite number...