Literature: Region 1
I. Background Information
Location and Population
The region is composed of four provinces, namely: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union and Pangasinan. Its regional center is San Fernando City, La Union. Region I is composed of 4 provinces, 9 cities, 116 municipalities, and 3265 barangays. The Ilocanos compose 66% of the region, the Pangasinan people compose 27%, and the Tagalogs compose 3%. * Economic Activities
Southern Portion- especially Pangasinan, is anchored on agro-industrial and service industry. Such as milkfish (bangus) cultivation and processing, livestock raising, fish paste processing (bagoong), and others. And also importance of trading, financial services, and educational services in the economy cannot be denied. Northern Portion- agricultural sector such as cultivating rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, and fruits; raising livestock such as pigs, chicken, goats, and carabaos (water buffalos). The region is also rich in crafts, with renowned blanket-weaving and pottery.The Ilocanos' burnay pottery is well known for its dark colored clay.
* Culture and Beliefs
Minorities- Tingguan and Isneg communities who inhabit the foothills of the Cordillera Mountains. In Dingaras resides Isneg and Yapayao. These tribes were two of the first inhabitants of the region. Values- The Ilocanos are known for being hardworking, brave, cheerful and simple. They are independent and work hard. Bain is the Ilocano trait for hiya or amor propio (sense of shame). - panagdayaw (respect for the sensitivities of others). Ilocanos tend to speak about themselves in the humblest of terms. -thriftiness or The Ilocanos value the fruit of their labor and are wise in spending the money they earned. Traditions-
Wedding: The man should ask the consent of his parents first. The groom’s parents will pay the dowry and finance the wedding. The groom makes a panagpudno (formal announcement) to the soon-to-be bride’s parents about his intention of marrying their daughter. His parents will then visit the bride’s parents to set the wedding date. Usually, parents consult a planetario. A feast follow the church ceremony, Another highlight of the feast is the bitor wherein guests contribute cash to the newlyweds either by dropping money onto the plates or by pinning bills to the couple’s clothes. Death: To announce a death of a family member, a piece of atong wood is lit in front of the deceased’s house. It is kept burning until after the burial. The fire is extinguished with white wine. Before the funeral, relatives pay respect by kissing the deceased’s hands or raising it to his/her forehead (mano). The corpse is kept inside the house. Money is placed in the coffin. This serves as a pay to the “ferry man” who takes the soul to the other world. Before the burial, relatives conduct a vigil around the body. Those who attended the burial in the cemetery must return to the deceased’s home by taking a different route from the one they’ve taken to get there. Upon arrival, they must wash their faces and hands. *
Literary Works / Pieces
Pre-colonial Iloko literature were composed of folk songs, riddles, proverbs, lamentations called dung-aw, and epic stories in written or oral form. Ancient Ilokano poets expressed themselves in folk and war songs as well as the dallot, an improvised, versified and at times impromptu long poem delivered in a sing-song manner. Comedia- otherwise known as the moro-moro, and the zarzuela were presented for the first time in the Ilocos in the 19th century. The comedia, a highly picturesque presentation of the wars between Christians and Muslims. The comedia was scripted from the corridos like Principe Don Juan, Ari Esteban ken Reyna Hipolita, Doce Paris, Bernardo Carpio,Jaime del Prado. Zarzuela-an equally picturesque depiction of what is at once melodrama, comic-opera, and the skit...
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