Phil. Consti. Art. 3

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Bill of Rights

Section 1.No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.

* Right to due process of law – It is the guarantee that there must be a court with judicial power to hear and decide the matter before it or which hears before it condemns and renders judgment only after trial. * Right to equal protection of the laws – it is the guarantee that all persons or things similarly situated should be treated alike both as to rights conferred and responsibilities.

Section 2.The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.

* Right against unreasonable searches and seizures – it is the guarantee that protects the privacy and the sanctity of the person and of his house and other possessions (papers, documents, etc.) found therein against arbitrary intrusions by agents of the state.

Section 3:(1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise as prescribed by law.

(2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding.

* Right of Privacy – It is the right of a person to be left alone or the right to live without interference by other people in matters with which they are not necessarily concerned.
Section 4:No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances.

* Freedom of Expression – It implies the right to freely utter and publish whatever one pleases without previous restraint, and to be protected against any responsibility for so doing as long as it does not violate the law, or injure someone’s character, reputation or business. * Freedom of Speech – It implies the right of an individual to freely utter or speak whatever he wants without restraint. * Freedom of the Press – It implies the right of an individual to freely write, publish, and circulate whatever he pleases without restraint. * Right of Assembly – It refers mainly to peaceful demonstrations related to public affairs. * Right of Petition – It is the right to take up one’s grievances with government without fear of persecution. * Right to form associations or societies not contrary to law – It is the guarantee that any person can organize or be a member of any group or society without restraint.

Section 5:No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights.

* Freedom of Religion – It is the guarantee that protects the broadest possible liberty of conscience, to allow each man to believe as his conscience directs, to profess his beliefs, and to live as he believes he ought to live, consistent with the liberty of others and with the common good.

Section 6:The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law.

* Liberty of Abode – It...
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