1. Which of the following statements related to osteoporosis is INCORRECT?
A. It is manifested by progressive decalcification of bones. B. It predisposes to fracture.
C. Supplementary calcium intake may retard or prevent progression of the disease. D. It occurs with equal frequency in both men and women.
2. Which of the following statements related to herniated intervertebral disk is INCORRECT?
A. Protrusion of the disk material may impinge on nerve roots that exit through intervertebral foramina. B. It usually results from chronic infection of the disk, which predisposes to the herniation. C. Protrusion of disk material may be detected by CT scan or myelogram. D. Part of the nucleus pulposus is extruded through a weak area or tear in the annulus fibrosus.
3. Which of the following statements regarding gout is INCORRECT?
A. It is a disturbance of purine metabolism.
B. It is associated with an autoantibody directed against antigens in joint cartilage. C. Uric acid may precipitate in tissues, forming gouty tophi. D. The frequency of attacks can be reduced by drugs that lower blood uric acid.
4. What is a pathologic fracture?
A. A fracture in which the overlying skin is broken
B. A fracture that occurs in a weakened area of bone secondary to a disease involving the bone C. A fracture in which the bone is shattered into multiple pieces D. A fracture associated with an autoantibody
5. Which of the following conditions is NOT a characteristic manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis?
A. Autoantibodies directed against gamma globulin
B. High levels of uric acid in the blood
C. Chronic inflammation of synovium
D. Involvement of the small joints of the hands and feet
6. Which of the following diseases or conditions affecting the skeletal system results from endocrine gland dysfunction?
Page: 723, acromegaly found in Chapter 25, page 650
7. Which of the following statements regarding muscular dystrophy is INCORRECT?
A. It is a hereditary disease.
B. It is caused by a mutation of the gene that is responsible for the synthesis of a muscle protein called dystrophin. C. It is transmitted to an X-linked trait to male children of women who are carriers of the mutant gene. D. Manifestations of the disease can be prevented by an adequate intake of folic acid.
8. Which of the following statements does NOT apply to myasthenia gravis?
A. Abnormal fatigability of voluntary muscles
B. Associated with degeneration of motor nerve cells supplying the affected muscles C. Associated with autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors at the myoneural junction of the muscle fibers D. Symptoms of the disease are relieved by drugs that prolong the action of acetylcholine
9. Various diseases or conditions may lead to elevated blood uric acid, leading to precipitation of uric acid in joints or periarticular tissues and cause acute joint inflammation. Which of the diseases listed below does NOT lead to elevated uric acid and episodes of inflammation?
B. Chronic leukemia treated with anti-leukemic drugs
C. Chronic kidney disease with renal failure
10. Which of the following is NOT a complication of untreated gout?
B. Acute joint inflammation
C. Kidney damage (nephropathy)
11. The episodes of acute arthritis in patients with gout result from which of the following?
A. High levels of uric acid in the blood
B. Acute inflammation in the joints due to precipitation of uric acid crystals within the joint fluid C. Autoantibodies to uric acid
D. The use of estrogen-containing...