- started as a philosophy
- has also become a methodology
- knowledge being acquired through experience → this is pre-reflexive
- pre-reflexive: essence of the phenomenon without thinking about our interpretation about it that are lived by the participant
o not “how do you feel about…” but just “describe….”
- Trying to transcend the subject to get to an objective core → transcendental phenomenology (Husserl)
- Existential phenomenology → focuses on existential aspects of human existence that have to do with life and death (Heideggger, Merleau-Ponty)
- Hermeneutical phenomenology → focuses on interpretive/constructivist findings (Heidegger, Gadamer)
- Phenomenology of practice → newer, more experiential, often used as a method to be applied in professional context; more pragmatic because if people want to do phenomenology but don’t have time to read old texts, this approach is suitable (Giorgi, Benner, Max van Manen)
Core concepts from Husserl -- the father of phenomenology
- Study of the “life world” – “to the things themselves”
o Concern with pre-reflexive experience/knowledge without resorting to some abstract conceptualization
- Descriptive science of the essences and actions of consciousness
o Understand essential features of a phenomenon as free as possible from cultural context
o Seeing things as they are
- Epoche of the natural sciences, and of the natural attitude
o How is the researcher to deal with his/her own presuppositions?
o Abstaining from incorporating a scientific theory
o If you bracket scientific assumptions, you can gain better access to the things themselves
o Also suspending your own naïve beliefs or what you understand about something
o If you return to things and re-examine things after bracketing, you can discover something you have overlooked
o How would you achieve epoche? →
- Aim: rigorous and unbiased study of things as they appear in order to arrive at... [continues]
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