Pharmacognosy is the study of drugs of natural origin.
The term comes from two Greek words: "pharmakon" meaning drug or medicine, and "gnosis" meaning knowledge. The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as "the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources".
Plant preparations are said to be medicinal or herbal when they are used to promote health beyond basic nutrition.
The study of drugs from plants includes the subjects of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.
Botany includes the identification (taxonomy), genetics, and cultivation of plants.
Chemical characterization includes the isolation, identification and quantification of constituents in plant materials.
Pharmacology is the study of the biological effects that the chemicals in medicinal plants have on cell cultures, animals and humans.
The renaissance of herbal medicine creates a demand for studies in the field of pharmacognosy. From a practical perspective this includes: * quality control (identity, purity, consistency)
* efficacy (therapeutic indications, clinical studies, pharmacological investigations) * safety (adverse reactions, drug interactions, contraindications, precautions) Quality Control
1. Moisture Determination/Water Content Determination
* Many drugs in the U.S.P. and N.F. contain varying quantities of water either as water of crystallization (hydrates) or as water in the adsorbed from. i. Water of crystallization is water that occurs in crystals but is not covalently bonded to a host molecule or ion. * “water of crystallization" refers to water that is found in a crystalline framework of a metal complex but that is not directly bonded to the metal ion. * A salt with associated water of crystallization is known...