Pharmaceuticals Ert

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Pharmaceuticals ERT

Pharmaceuticals- Extended Response Task


Table of Contents

1.0ABSTRACT3
2.0INTRODUCTION3
2.1The background information of Aspirin3
2.11 History3
2.12 chemical structures4
2.2The background information of Acetaminophen5
2.21 History5
2.22 Chemical Structures6
3.0BODY6
3.1 Synthesis6
3.11 Synthesis of Aspirin6
3.12 Synthesis of Acetaminophen7
3.2 Mechanism of Action in Human Body9
3.2.1 Pain as a warning system9
3.2.2 Aspirin9
3.2.3 Acetaminophen10
3.3 Side effects10
3.3.1 Side effects of Aspirin10
3.3.2 Side effects of Acetaminophen11
4.0EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS12
5.0CONCLUSION13
6.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY14
BOOKS/ REPORTS:14
WEBSITE:14
7.0 APPENDICES17
Appendices 117
17
Appendices 217
17
Appendices 318


1.0ABSTRACT

Pharmacology is the study of how the natural and synthetic chemical agents affect biological systems (Antonio, 2008). Both the Aspirin and Acetaminophen, a suitable alternative to Aspirin, are used to reduce substances in the body that cause pain, fever and inflammation (acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine, 2011). However, Acetaminophen could be used as alternative drug for patients allergic to aspirin (acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine, 2011). Through an analysis and evaluation of the comparison between aspirin and Acetaminophen, it was conclusive that the Acetaminophen is more effective than aspirin. Firstly, Acetaminophen is fixing the damage that initially triggers the pain, but Aspirin does not. Secondly, it works as a selective COX-2 inhibitor to make it does not restrain the pain and it is much safer for children. Finally, it has fewer side effects than Aspirin, such as stomach irritation. 2.0INTRODUCTION

2.1The background information of Aspirin
Aspirin was one of the first drugs to become commonly used and is the most widely used over-the-counter drug in the world. The formula of Aspirin is C9H8O4.It falls within the category of an nonsteoidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and has the properties of an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and is an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aspirin is a member of propriety analgesic and flu preparations. Furthermore, it is commonly used to reduce minor aches, pains, fever and inflammation. Clinically, doctors usually prescribe it as a valuable medicine to avoid heart attacks. The chemical name of Aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid and its systematic name is 2-acetoxybenzoic acid. Aspirin is known as a salicylate (Burke, Anne; Smyth, Emer; FitzGerald, Garret A, 2006).

2.11 History
The effects of aspirin-like substances have been known since the ancient Greeks recorded the use of the willow bark as a remedy for fever. The leaves and bark of the willow tree contain a substance called salicin, a naturally occurring compound similar to acetylsalicylic acid (Fascinating facts about the invention of Aspirin by Felix Hoffmann in 1897, 2006). Since 400 B.C, a Greek physician called Hippocrates prescribes the bark and leaves of the willow tree to relieve pain and fever (The History of Aspirin, 2012). By 1829, scientists discovered that it was the compound called salicin in willow plants which could give the pain relief (Bellis, 2012). In 1832, a German chemist experimented with salicin and created salicylic acid (SA). Germany chemist Felix Hoffmann chemically synthesized a stable form of ASA powder that relieves his father's rheumatism in 1897. The compound later became the active ingredient in Aspirin named - "a" from acetyl, "spir" from the spirea plant (which yields salicin) and "in," a common suffix for medications. By 1899, Hoffmann’s employer, the Bayer Company was providing aspirin to physicians to give to their patients (The History of Aspirin, 2012). Aspirin was patented on February 27, 1900. Aspirin was first sold as a powder (Bellis, 2012). Finally, the first Aspirin tablets were made in 1915 (Bellis, 2012).

2.12 chemical structures...
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