Curriculum Development and Professional Contexts
The term curriculum is defined by Bobbit (1918) in the first book published about the curriculum (The Curriculum: Frank John Bobbit 1918), as a word which, has its origins in the Latin terms for race course. Bobbit (1918) explains that the curriculum is the course of experiences where children become the adults they should be, so that they can be successful in the adult world. By this Bobbit (1918) means that the curriculum is activities that learners will undertake to achieve certain learning achievements and goals. Education can be seen as the process which transits or delivers to students in 'the most effective methods that can be devised.’ (Blenkin, Edwards, Kelly 1992, pg 23). There are many definitions of curriculum. Kelly (2009) identifies two main things that curriculum can mean (i) the range of courses from which students choose what subject matters to study, and (ii) a specific learning program where the curriculum describes the teaching, learning, and assessment materials available for a given course of study (Kelly 2009). Tanner (1980) defines curriculum as “the planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and wilful growth in personal social competence.” (Tanner 1980) The curriculum will be discussed in this assignment along with professionalism government ideologies and philosophies and the curriculum design that I have developed with my team, looking at the strengths and weaknesses of the design and also the process of going through a validation panel to get the curriculum approved.
Models of Curriculum Design
Different theorists have different opinions on how a curriculum should be designed. The way the curriculum is designed is dependant on the intended learning, it is important to acknowledge that just as there is not a "teacher-proof" methodology (Parlett & Hamilton 1975:153), there is also no "participant-proof" curriculum, and that whatever design was adapted, it would depend for its effectiveness on teachers' and learners' perceptions, interpretations, beliefs and expectations (Allwright 1984;Cotterall 1995:195): Curriculum design can be described in two main ways. One way is the product model. This model depends on setting objectives or learning goals and is focussed on the ways which, learning is measured. The second main model is the process model. This model is focussed on the success indicators, Donald (2000) states that these are the relationship between teacher and learner; the method of delivery of learning and distance travelled by the learner. The two models are divided into different models of delivery, the model of delivery determines choices of teaching/learning strategies, that are strongly predetermined by outside factors to the college/school and the course to be taught, such as awarding bodies; funding; constraints of the organisation and political factors. The product model includes the objectives model of curriculum. The objectives model includes Ralph Tyler's (1949) influential prescriptive model. Tylers (1949) model is described as prescriptive as it clearly sets out what the teacher should do in terms of questioning. Tyler (1949) believed that teachers should question (a) the purpose of education; (b) the experiences likely to provide those purposes or objectives; (c) the organisation required and (d) the measurement of the attainment of the purpose, when developing the curriculum. It has been suggested that Tyler (1949) advocated a means to an ends approach to the development of the curriculum and ‘Curriculum making was understood as a linear process which starts with the development of clear objectives or goals.’ (Scott 2008, p. 7). The model is concerned with behavioural...