Petroleum

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Fundamentals Of Petroleum Engineering PRODUCTION
Mohd Fauzi Hamid Wan Rosli Wan Sulaiman
Department of Petroleum Engineering Faculty of Petroleum & Renewable Engineering Universiti Technologi Malaysia 1

COURSE CONTENTS

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Introduction Flowing Wells Artificial Lift Oil Treating Storage and Sale of Oil Salt Water Disposal

Introduction

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The production stage is the most important stage of a well's life, when the oil and gas are produced. By this time, the oil rigs used to drill and complete the well have moved off the wellbore, and the top is usually outfitted with a collection of valves called a Christmas tree or Production trees. These valves regulate pressures, control flows, and allow access to the wellbore in case further completion work is needed. From the outlet valve of the production tree, the flow can be connected to a distribution network of pipelines and tanks to supply the product to refineries, natural gas compressor stations, or oil export terminals.

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Introduction

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As long as the pressure in the reservoir remains high enough, the production tree is all that is required to produce the well. If the pressure depletes and it is considered economically viable, an artificial lift method can be employed.

Introduction

Introduction

Typical Crude Oil Production Train

Flowing Wells



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Defined as any well which has sufficient pressure in the reservoir to cause the oil or gas to flow naturally to the surface through the wellbore. A well which produces oil or gas without any means of artificial lift. They require relatively little equipment or expense to bring the oil to the surface. The equipment commonly used consists of tubing, wellhead and x-mas tree.

Artificial Lift

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Artificial lift is a technique used to bring oil from the reservoir to the surface because of decreasing reservoir pressure. Generally this is achieved by the use of a mechanical device inside the well (known as pump or velocity string) or by decreasing the weight of the hydrostatic column by injecting gas into the liquid some distance down the well. Artificial lift is needed in wells when there is insufficient pressure in the reservoir to lift the produced fluids to the surface. It also often used in naturally flowing wells (which do not technically need it) to increase the flow rate above what would flow naturally.

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Artificial Lift



There are currently four common methods of artificial lift:

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Beam pumping Submersible pumping Gas lift Hydraulic pumping

Artificial Lift - Beam Pumping

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The pump is designed to be inserted inside the tubing of a well and its main purpose is to gather fluids from beneath it and lift them to the surface. The most important components are: the barrel, valves (traveling and fixed) and the piston. The pump is connected to the pumping unit at the surface by a string of sucker rods. Sucker rods are stroked up and down in the tubing, activating the pump at the bottom. At the surface, a large mechanical device called the beam pumping unit is attached.

Artificial Lift - Beam Pumping
1. Engine or Motor 2. Gear reducer 3. Crank arm 4. Counter weight 5. Pitman arm 6. Walking beam 7. Sampson post 8. Horse head 9. Bridle 10. Polished rod 11. Stuffing box 12.Sucker rods 13. Tubing 14. Casing 15. Pump Beam Pumping Diagram

Artificial Lift - Beam Pumping

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Depending on the size of the pump, it generally produces 5 to 40 litres of liquid at each stroke. Often this is an emulsion of crude oil and water. Pump size is also determined by the depth and weight of the oil to remove, with deeper extraction requiring more power to move the heavier lengths of sucker rods. Advantages of beam pumping:

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High system efficiency. Economical to repair and service. Flexibility - adjust production through stroke length and speed. High salvage value for surface unit and downhole equipment....
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