As the menace of coal smoke receded the society changed its name (to the National Society for Clean Air) and its focus, and in the 1970s began to campaign vigorously on air pollution from industry and, increasingly, transport. During this period membership was mainly (although far from exclusively) drawn from local authorities, with some industrial membership. Perhaps the main achievement of the Society after the Clean Air Acts was the development of the concept of Local Air Quality Management and the incorporation of this in the Environment Act 1995. The original Environment Bill was intended to deal with issues such as the establishment of the Environment Agency, contaminated land, National Parks and waste topics.
Britain is becoming a less attractive place to invest and work in because of government tax plans, trade and investment minister Digby Jones said on Friday, the latest non-political appointee to question policy. The ruling Labor party has come under pressure to match opposition plans to raise more tax from wealthy foreigners living and working in Britain. It has proposed to end tax breaks which mean rich residents who are non-domiciled for fiscal purposes pay no UK tax.
•International trade regulations and restrictions
Customs duty is assessed on the fair market value of imported goods at the time they are landed in the UK. Import prices for products entering the UK from non-EU states generally consist of: Cost, Insurance, Freight and Duty, with VAT of 15% levied on the aggregate value. This sum is the exporter’s “landed cost, duty paid.”The commercial invoice value is usually accepted as the normal price, but if a preferential arrangement has been established between the overseas supplier and the importer, or an unrealistic value has been declared, HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) reserves the right to assess a fair market value for duty purposes. The duty is payable at the time the goods are imported, but established importers can defer payment for an average of 30 days. In addition to customs duties on imported goods, an excise tax is levied on in-country sales of alcohol, tobacco, and road vehicles, and on sales of oil and petroleum products.
The UK has no significant trade or investment barriers and no restrictions on the transfer of capital or repatriation of profits. The very few barriers that exist are almost all attributable to UK implementation of EU Directives and regulations.
c.Import Requirements and Documentation
A limited range of goods requires import licenses, which are issued by the UK Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform’s Import Licensing Branch. These include firearms and explosives, nuclear materials, controlled drugs and certain items of military equipment.
d.U.S. Export Controls
U.S. exports to the UK are subject to the normal U.S. export control regulations, administered by the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) for dual-use items and the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) for military end-use items. In June 2007, President Bush and Prime Minister Blair announced a forthcoming bilateral Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty, intended to greatly reduce licensing requirements arising from government-to government defense programs. At the time of writing, the Treaty is under review by the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee. In addition to International Trafficking in Arms Regulations (ITAR), re-exports from the UK and the activities of UK-based subsidiaries, are subject to UK export controls. These are managed by the Export Control Organization (ECO), an office of the UK Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR). U.S. companies supplying certain restricted items appearing on the UK Military List, including missile and long-range UAV technology, are...