Pervasive Developmental Disorders
The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills, social interactions, and by restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. According to the definition set forth in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (1994), "Pervasive Developmental Disorders are characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development: social interaction skills, communication skills, or the presence of stereotyped behavior, interests, and activities" (p. 65). These are the primary symptoms of all types of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (see table 1). Powers (2000) notions, that "pervasive means that the condition affects development extensively and across the board" (p. 9). The DSM-IV (1994) identifies five Pervasive Developmental Disorders (see figure 1). Autistic Disorder is the first Pervasive Developmental Disorder, which is usually evident within the first year of life. According to Tsai (1998), "children with Autistic Disorder have a moderate to severe range of communication, socialization, and behavior problems" (p. 2). Exkorn (2005) notes that "the three most common early symptoms of Autistic Disorder are a lack of eye contact, a lack of pointing, and a lack of responding" (p. 17). Children with Autistic Disorder seem to live in their own world. These children avoid social contact, refusing to be held or touched. They seem more interested in object rather then children or pets. They show no interest in others and they do not respond to affection. Children with autism preferably do not communicate with you verbally. They much rather use gestures, pictures of symbols to communicate their wants and needs. Children with an Autistic Disorder need the predictable and unchangeable routine in their life, have intense interests and preferences, and show repetitive behaviors such as hand and finger traits. Asperger's Disorder is identified second. Children with this disorder have noticeable problems with social interaction and unusual behaviors and interests. Asperger's Disorder is sometimes mistakenly referred as high-functioning autism because children with this diagnosis tend to have typical or advanced language skills. According to Exkorn (2005) "the difference between a diagnosis of Asperger's and high-functioning Autistic Disorder lies in the realm of communication" (p. 21). Children with the Asperger's Disorder tend to develop normal language, thinking, and coping skills. Though, many children with Autistic Disorders never speak. Just like with the autistic disorder, children are reluctant to make eye contact and they do not respond to emotional interactions. Exkorn (2005) state indicates "unlike other autism spectrum disorders where a child is diagnosed at a very young age, usually by age three, Asperger's is often not diagnosed until the child is school-age, usually five years or older" (p. 21). Rett's Disorder is very rare and found almost exclusively in girls. The children have deficits in motor skills and are usually mentally retarded. Stereotypic motor movements, lack of muscle control and cognitive and language limitations are some of the symptoms that children with ritt's disorder suffer from. On the other hand, they have normal early development. That means that the symptoms of Rett's Disorder develop gradually over time, starting with normal development from birth until approximately five months of age. Children with autism generally have better motor skills, both fine motor and gross motor than children with Rett's Disorder. Other symptoms of Rett's Disorder are slower head and body growth, sleep disturbances and difficulty breathing. The Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) is very rare. It occurs perhaps in one out of one hundred thousand children. It emerges after an extended period of typical development which often lasts several years. When the regression...
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