Peru - Peruvian Migration to Lima

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What causes people from rural areas in Peru to move to its capital, Lima, and what are the effects it has on the way of living? This is a big concern for the Peruvian people whose lives are affected by an increase in poverty, invaded settlements, and crime. Lima is crowded with people who live in very poor conditions due to the lack of employment. In order to explain the current situation in Lima I truly feel one must understand its history. Peru is a country which history contained many different settled cultures before the Incan empire reigned and was conquered. Once conquered by the Spanish, their main objectives were to pillage and to convert native tribes to Christianity, and to stop the development of the indigenous civilizations. Incans were treated ruthlessly, used for labor to produce what was needed in Spain. The result was the creation of a mental gap between the Inca and the Spanish population. A separation that has endured for more than 400 years, and the evidence is easily seen today when analyzing the current situation in Lima. Almost all of the people migrating to Lima come from an Incan (indigenous) background, which is totally separated from a more modern life in the capital. To start, when contrasting Peru to other Latin American countries like Bolivia, Ecuador and Mexico, "Mestizaje," (the integration of Indigenous with European blood) never became an official national ideology in Peru. Cultural problems and conflicts have been evident in the countries history as well as the migration issues that have transpired in the past decades. This is the large numbers of indigenous people from rural areas occupying the capital. An interesting thought for us would be to imagine the US still having a large Native American population and many of those groups integrating into our society today. In what ways would it affect our society? Although many factors lead to migration in Lima's urban areas, it is mainly blamed on the lack of opportunity available to remote rural areas. More than half of Peru's population struggle to survive. In most cases Lima offers the only location for opportunity. Three out of every four Peruvians live in urban areas. The majority of Peru's poor people live in and in the outskirts of Lima. Close to one fourth of the population lives in severe poverty. People come to Lima from rural areas hoping for a better life only to be hit by a severe and cold reality. When looking at migration to Lima by rural people often referred as "paisanos," the poverty that they live within is obvious. "Most of the poor in Lima, likewise, live in three great peripheral "conos" radiating from the central city" (Davis 27). There are many reasons for migration to Lima, whether in the past or in the present, the reasons for migrating vary in many ways. Initially it must be understood that Peru is a country whose economy is centralized on its capital. In the last couple of decades Lima's development as a primate city began taking form in a rapid manner. In 1990 Lima was 14% larger than the following 24 cities combined. The centralization is evident and more than demographic. During the late 80's, Lima consumed over 70% of the national electrical energy, had near 70% of its industry , near 100% of all private investment and every other economical as well as educational advantages over any other province in the country. The Peruvian government has been almost totally centralized in Lima since the 16th century. In the past a resident of the capital who committed a crime would be punished by deporting them out of Lima to serve their sentence, the farther away from the capital the greater the penalty. This concept still supports the social conflict in Peru today. Anyone, especially people with indigenous physical characteristics and beliefs is considered a provincial person, more or less like an outsider. They are mainly stereotyped as not being civilized and for being disadvantaged and are referred to as...
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