“Perspectives on adult learning have changed significantly over the last decades. Adult learning has been viewed as a process of being freed from the oppression of being illiterate, a means of gaining knowledge and skills, a way to satisfy learner needs, and a process of critical self-reflection that can lead to transformation. Phenomenon of adult learning is broad, complex and impossible to capture in only one definition” From: Cranton, P (1994). Understanding and Promoting Transformative Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 3. Adults as a learners and learning in order to understand this phenomenon we should understand what intelligence is. There are many questions we can ask ourselves regarding intelligence: * Does intelligence exist?
* Is it possible to measure intelligence and how?
* Are we born with a certain level of intelligence or it is something we gain throughout life? * Nature vs. Nurture factors.
* Different kinds of intelligent
* Which role does our culture play in intelligence?
There are a lot of theories on what intelligence is and how it can be measured. For instance, Cattell believes that intelligence consists of 2 main factors (crystallized intelligence and fluid) each of them with a different origins. Crystallized intelligence is more influenced by life experience and education. Crystallized intelligence is more of an external factor, whereas fluid is intelligence with the ability to perceive complex relations formation concepts, abstraction, reasoning and engage in a short-term memory. Cattel also believes that there is no single measurement or test which can measure our level of intelligence Fluid intelligence comes to its peak in adolescence, on the other hand, crystallized is believed to remain stable or increase during most of adulthood. There are also physical and cognitive factors in the learning process and perspectives. For example, older learners have slower reaction times than younger. Older learners need more time to learn new things (another language, playing new musical instrument or learning how to use new software). However, when adults able control their pace of learning, they can efficiently and effectively compensate for their lack of speed and therefore adopt and learn new things successfully. Other factors are hearing and vision, generally, vision starts to decline from the age of 18 to 40. After 40 there is a sharp decline, but after 55, the decline rate occurs slower. When we talk about how children learn we mainly focus on their developmental stages which they are passing through as they are mature. Adults likewise, they go through developmental stages which we can group sociologically or chronologically. Assumptions of andragogy.
In adult education and learning, andragogy is an important theory which consists of six different steps. 1. Adults need to understand and realize why they need to learn something 2. Adults are mature and they are responsible for their own decisions. 3. Adults got experience to bring in education.
4. Adults are ready to learn when they need to know.
5. Adults consider learning to be life centered.
6. Contrary to children, adults are mostly motivated internally. Internal pressure. Knowles believes, that out of all six steps, main are step 1 and step 3. Adults need to understand and realize why they need to learn and adults are mature enough to bring experience in education. Certainly, adults need to understand and realize why they need extra learning. He or she must realize the importance of learning. Of course, sometimes there are situations in which adults can choose to learn something just for enjoyment; however, commonly adults learn something because they need to know it. Knowles believes that this need-to-know attitude consists of two reasons. 1. Adults are mature enough and have more responsibilities than their youth counterparts. 2. Adults enters to an...