Perspectives of John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman

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Perspectives of John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman
Learned behaviors come from forms of conditioning stimulus. The two forms of conditioning: classical and operant. Each one has an effect on a person’s behavior. Classical conditioning is when a behavior is from a neutral stimulus along with another stimulus of significance. Operant conditioning is a learned behavior that comes from the effect of receiving consequences for ones actions. Both of these learning conditionings cause phobias and behavioral addictions to occur. Behavioral Psychology specialized in the relationships between stimuli and response (Goodwin, 2008). During the 19th Century behavioral psychology was beginning to strongly evolve with American psychologist. John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman were influential psychologist that their theories and practices changed behavioral psychology through the ages.

John. B Watson
In 1913, John B. Watson was invited to speak at Columbia University and Watson shared his theory of behavioral psychology. The lecture that Watson delivered at Columbia University was published during the same year with an insulting title “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It” (Goodwin, 2008). This publication was known as the Behaviorist Manifesto. Watson was sounding the charge against introspection and declared that there was no relationship between animal behavior and human behavior during his lecture (Horowitz, 1992). Goodwin (2008) quoted the opening paragraph from the called Behaviorist Manifesto,

Psychology as the behaviorist views it is purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. The behaviorist, in his efforts to get unitary scheme of animal response,...
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