Perspective

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* Discuss sensation and perception skills in early infancy.
* Discuss the theory of habituation and its role in intelligence.

When a baby is born they have all of their senses, although they are all not developed well. They are however developed enough for newborn to gather information needed about their surroundings. Touch helps to stimulate early physical growth (Berks, 2012). Areas around the mouth, the palms, the genitals, and feet are all sensitive to touch. Most newborns makes faces which helps in knowing that they can tell the difference between certain tastes. Hearing is something that is activated while in the mother’s womb. At the time of birth not all visual capabilities are formed. Infants perceive objects at a distant of 20 feet (Slater, 2001). ` According to Gross (2011) research that has taken places over the last decades show that infants are relatively competent perceivers; they are able to detect, discriminate, sounds, taste, aromas, etc. There are a few different theories of perception when it comes to infants. Empiricist like Berkley who was a British philosopher believed that knowledge had to be constructed since it was not contained in the information picked up by the retina and other sensory receptors (Gross, 2011). Kellman and Arterberry (1998) states that by piecing together the individual bits of information conveyed by those receptors, could meaning be imposed on and perceived in the meaningless sensations. The nativist has a viewpoint that relations and meanings could be built during infancy with little to no sensory experience. There is also the ecological perspective on infant perception; this was the idea that the visual system perceives things without steps to interpret it. Habituation is a gradual reduction in the strength due to repetitive stimulation (Berks, 2012). Once the habituation has occurred a change in the environment causes the response system to go back to a high level, which is called recovery. According to...
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