Theory of Development
Erik Erikson is best known for theories of personality development. His theory details the impact of social experiences across a person’s whole life span. He believes that everyone’s personality develops in a series of stages. There are conflicts that a person experiences in each stage that helps them be successful or fail. The conflicts make a person have personal growth. There are eight different stages of Erikson’s development theory. Each stage has opposites that versus each other. If a person masters a stage it is referred to as ego strength or ego quality (Hoare, 2009). If they stage is poorly managed, the person will leave with a sense of failure. Trust versus Mistrust
The first stage of Erikson’s development theory is trust versus mistrust. This stage takes place at birth to one year of age. The trust is dependent upon the dependability and quality of the caregiver. This stage also corresponds with Freudian’s oral-sensory stage. If a child succeeds in developing trust, they will feel secure and safe in the world. But if the caregivers are unpredictable or rejecting feelings, the child will develop mistrust. The child will have fear and belief that the world is inconsistent and random (Salkind, 2005). Since most people do not remember their first few years of life they have to rely on feeling and family information. This learner knows that the first four months of her life she was in the hospital for a congenital heart problem. Her parents were there for her every day. She knows that she had a handful of doctor and nurses that help with this trusting possess. When she got home she had aunts, uncles, and grandparents to help her trust the world. This learner believes she left this stage with ego strength. Autonomy versus Doubt
Autonomy versus doubt is the second stage. In Freud’s theory it is referred to as the anal stage. In this stage, children gain control over their own body functions. This would include toilet training. They also gain more control over with food they like to eat, toy and clothing fondness, and recognition of emotions. Children that are successful in completing this stage feel confident and secure. Those who do not are left with feeling of self-doubt and a sense of inadequacy (Salkind, 2005).
As stated before, this learner does not remember these years of her life. She grew up with an awesome support group. She was still in and out the hospital during this time. She is a very confident and secure young women and she believes it was due to completing each stage successful. Initiative versus Guilt
This is the locomotor stage. The locomotor part of initiative versus guilt is the child’s moving away from depending on parents to the ability to meet personal needs. Children start to show more of their own power and control over their own world through play and social interaction. Children that are successful in this stage feel capable and usually become leaders. If the child fails they feel sense of guilt, self doubt, and lack of initiative (Salkind, 2005).
An educator is a person that leads on a daily basis. Since this learner was a teacher for years, she believes she was profitable in the initiative versus guilt stage. She was always different her whole life, so she did not follow her peers often. She has always taken her own path. Industry versus inferiority
This stage takes place in early school years. Through interactions, children develop a sense of social skills that are necessary to function in environment. A child’s culture beliefs are an important part of this development. Children that are encouraged by teachers and parents develop feeling of self worth and sense of belief in their culture (Salkind, 2005). Children who do not receive adequate support will have doubts about their own ability of their success.