Permanent Water Hardness of Water Sources from PSHS-IRC by Indirect Titration
Anna Marie S. Cabatbat
Crystal Jill R. Mangsat
Jan Michael Maturan
Charlene Lou A. Nicer
Arian Paul D. Norcio
Submitted to the Faculty of the
Philippine Science High School – Ilocos Region Campus
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
Science and Technology Research 2
This study aimed to determine the permanent water hardness in terms of calcium carbonate concentration of water samples from the Boys’ dormitory, Administration Building, Gymnasium, Girls’ dormitory, and Canteen of PSHS-IRC together with the commercial drinking water Nature Spring, Absolute, and Wilkins through indirect titration. Water hardness was identified by the amount of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in ppm. The control group consisting of the branded commercialized drinking water had a concentration less than 43 ppm of CaCO3 and was considered as soft based on table of water hardness classification. The water samples collected from the Boys’ dormitory, Administration Building, Gymnasium, Girls’ dormitory, and Canteen have CaCO3 concentrations greater than 43 ppm and were classified as slightly hard. The water sample from the Boys’ dormitory had the highest concentration of 87.420 ppm and the water sample from Gymnasium had the lowest concentration of 52.712 ppm. Based from the results, the samples from the different sources contained significant amount of CaCO3 which may cause further problems in pipe clogging, health, laundry, and utility from these sources.
This thesis entitled “Permanent Water Hardness of Water Sources from PSHS-IRC by Indirect Titration,” prepared by Anna Marie S. Cabatbat, Crystal Jill R. Mangsat, Jan Michael Maturan, Charlene Lou A. Nicer, and Arian Paul D. Norcio, in partial fulfillment of the requirements in Science Technology Research 2, has been examined on March __, 2013 and passed by the Oral Examination Committee composed of:
ANNELLENE H. MADRID
STR 2 TEACHER
SHARON L. PALOMARES
STR 2 TEACHER
ROMULO R. MACADANGDANG, JR
STR 2 TEACHER
Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirement in Science Technology Research 2.
RONNALEE N. ORTEZA, Ph. D.
LARRY L. CABATIC, Ph. D.
This research wouldn’t have been possible without the continual guidance and help of the following people, and so the researchers would like to express their deepest appreciation to:
The Philippine Science High School Sysytem for letting the researchers experiences the grant to scholarship and the privilege to experience Pisay life; Their research teachers, Mr. Romulo R. Macadangdang, Jr, for his interest and wisdom on the subject of Chemistry which is a vital component of this study; Mrs. Sharon L. Palomares, for her justified critiques, assessments, and recommendations for improvement; and Ms. Annellene H. Madrid, for her unending support as a research adviser;
Ms. Mary Ann R. Lagua, Chemistry II teacher, who introduced to the researchers the method of indirect titration and the formulas needed for the computations and quantitative analysis; Mr. Gwynne Micah S. Ritua, a student from IV-Photon, for his assistance on the required formulas and continuous support on the study and the researchers; Their family, friends, and batch mates for the support given and the motivation that they imparted to the researchers for the completion of the study; And, above all, to the Lord Jesus Christ for his generosity, love and never-ending help, especially on this research. Anna, Arian, Charlene, Crystal, Jan Michael
LIST OF FIGURES
| Process Flowchart
| Summary of Water Hardness
LIST OF TABLES
| Hardness scale classification
| Hardness classification of different water sources
| Summary of raw data...
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