Periodic Classification of Elements

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Periodic Classification of Elements

Classification of Elements according to electron configuration
( type of subshell being filled)

*valence electrons –outer electrons of atom which are those involved in chemical bonding ; accounts for similarities in chemical behavior among elemens within each of this groups

* Representative elements/ Main Group elements
* Group 1A-7A
* Incompletely filled s/ p subshells
* Display a wide range of physical and chemical properties * Most reactive and most predictable with respect to periodic properties * most abundant elements on the earth, in the solar system, and in the universe * Group number equals the number of electrons in the highest / outermost energy level H   1s1|

Li   2s1|
Na   3s1|

* Noble Gases
* Group 8A
* Completely filled p subshell (exc. He)
* Great stability
* Except krypton and xenon, elements in noble gases are totally inert chemically * The noble gases are all found in minute quantities in the atmosphere, and are isolated by fractional distillation of liquid air. |

helium| 1s2|
neon| [He]2s22p6|
argon| [Ne]3s23p6|

* Transition Metals
* Group 1B and 3B-8B
* Incompletely filled d subshells
* Readily produce cations
* ductile and malleable, and conduct electricity and heat * exhibit several common oxidation states
* Less predictable properties
* 2B (Zinc, Mercury etc.)- neither representative elements nor transition metals * Transition metal compounds are paramagnetic when they have one or more unpaired d electrons. Sc
4s23d1| Ti
4s23d2| V

* Inner Transition Metals

Lanthanides/rare earth series- Follow lanthanum
Actinides- follow actinium; most of these elements are not found in nature but have been synthesized

* Incompletely filled f subshells
Cerium: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f2
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