Performance management is the means through which managers ensure that employee¡¦s activities and outputs are congruent with the organization¡¦s goals.
Some aspects of performance can be measured through performance appraisal. It is the process through which an organization gets information on how well an employee is doing his or her job. Performance management has strategic, administrative and developmental purposes. There are a few approaches to measuring performance. The comparative approach requires the rater to compare an individual¡¦s performance with that of others. This approach usually uses some overall assessment of an individual¡¦s performance or worth and seeks to develop some ranking of the individuals within a work group. Three techniques fall under the comparative approach: ranking, forced distribution, and paired comparison. The attribute approach to performance management focuses on the extent to which individuals have certain attributes believed desirable for the company¡¦s success. The behavioral approach to performance management attempts to define the behaviors an employee must exhibit to be effective in the job. The results approach focuses on managing the objective, measurable results of a job or work group. This approach assumes that subjectivity can be eliminated from the measurement process and that results are the closest indicator of one¡¦s contribution to organizational effectiveness. The quality approach is characterized by a customer orientation and a prevention approach to errors. Tips for manager¡¦s role in an effective performance feedback process: XFeedback should be given frequently, not once a year
XCreate the right context for the discussion
XAsk the employee to rate his or her performance before the session XEncourage the subordinate to participate in the session
XRecognize effective performance through praise
XFocus on solving problems
XFocus feedback on behavior or results,...