December 17, 2001
Performance Concepts and Performance Theory
Sabine Sonnentag University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany, and Michael Frese University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany
RELEVANCE OF INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE 4
DEFINITION OF PERFORMANCE 5
PERFORMANCE AS A MULTI-DIMENSIONAL CONCEPT 6
TASK PERFORMANCE 6
CONTEX TUAL PERFORMANCE 6
RELATIONSHIP BE T WEEN TASK AND CONTEXTUAL
PERFORMANCE AS A DYNAMIC CONCEPT 7
PERSPECTIVES ON PERFORMANCE 8
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES PERSPEC T IVE 8
SI TUATIONAL PERSPECT I VE 11
PERFORMANCE REGULATION PERSPECTIVE 13
RELAT IONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIOUS PERSPECTIVES 15 PERFORMANCE IN A CHANGING WORLD OF WORK 15
CONT INUOUS LEARNING 15
WORKING IN TEAMS 17
GLOBALIZ AT ION 17
This chapter gives an overview of research on individual performance. Individual per- formance is highly important for an organization as a whole and for the individuals working in it. Performance comprises both a behavioral and an outcome aspect. It is a multi-dimensional and dynamic concept. This chapter presents three perspectives on performance: an individual differences perspective with a focus on individual charac- teristics as sources for variation in performance; a situational perspective with a focus on situational aspects as facilitators and impediments for performance; and a perfor- mance regulation perspective with a focus on the performance process. The chapter describes how current changes in the nature of work such as the focus on continuous learning and proactivity, increase in team work, improved technology, and trends to- ward globalization have an impact on the performance concept and future performance research.
Psychological Management of Individual Performance. Edited by Sabine Sonnentag. ×C 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
December 17, 2001
performance concepts and performance theory
Individual performance is a core concept within work and organizational psychology. During the past 10 or 15 years, researchers have made progress in clarifying and extend- ing the performance concept (Campbell, 1990). Moreover, advances have been made in specifying major predictors and processes associated with individual performance. With the ongoing changes that we are witnessing within organizations today, the perfor- mance concepts and performance requirements are undergoing changes as well (Ilgen & Pulakos, 1999). In this chapter, we summarize the major lines within performance-related research. With this overview we want to contribute to an integration of the scattered field of performance-related research. First, we briefly discuss the relevance of individual per- formance both for individuals and organizations. We provide a definition of performance and describe its multi-dimensional and dynamic nature. Subsequently, we present three different perspectives on performance: the individual differences perspective, the situ- ational perspective, and the performance relation perspective. Finally, we summarize current trends in the nature of work and discuss how these trends may affect the perfor- mance concept as well as broader performance research and management.
RELEVANCE OF INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE
Organizations need highly performing...
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