An organization’s goals can be achieved only when people put in their best efforts. How to ascertain whether an employee has shown his or her best performance on a given job? The answer is performance appraisal. Employee assessment is one of the fundamental jobs of HRM. But not an easy one though.
Meaning and Definition
It is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development.
In simple terms, performance appraisal may be understood as the assessment of an individual's performance in a systematic way, the performance being measured against such factors as job knowledge, quality and quantity of output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgment, versatility, health, and the like. Assessment should not be confined to past performance alone. Potentials of the employee for future performance must also be assessed.
A more comprehensive definition is:
Performance' appraisal is a formal structured system of measuring and evaluating an employee’s job related behaviors and outcomes to discover how and why the employee is presently performing on the job and how the employee can perform more effectively in the future so that the employee organization and society all benefit.
The second definition includes employees’ behaviour as part of the assessment. Behaviour can be active or passive--do something or do nothing. Either way behaviour affects job results. The other terms used for performance appraisal arc: performance rating, employee assessment. Employees performance review, personnel appraisal, performance evaluation employee evaluation and (perhaps the oldest of the terms used) merit rating. In a formal sense, employee assessment is as old as, the concept of management and in an informal sense; it is probably as old as mankind. Nor performance appraisal is done in isolation. It is linked to job analysis as shown in Fig.
Job analysis sets out requirements, which are translated into performance standards, which in turn from the basis for performance appraisal
|Job Analysis |
|Describes work and personnel requirement |
|of a particular job |
|Translate job requirements I into levels of|
|acceptable or I' unacceptable performance |
|Describes the job-relevant strengths and |
|weaknesses of each individual |
Fig. Relationship of Performance Appraisal and Job Analysis
OBJECTIVES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Data relating to performance assessment of employees arc recorded, stored. and used for seven purposes. The main purposes of employee assessment are: 1. To effect promotions based on competence and performance. 2. To confirm the services of probationary employees upon their completing the probationary period satisfactorily. 3. To assess the training and development needs of employees. 4. To decide upon a pay raise where (as in the unorganized sector) regular pay scales have not been fixed. 5. To let the employees know where they stand insofar as their performance is concerned and to assist them with constructive criticism and guidance for the purpose of their development. 6. To improve communication. Performance appraisal provides a format for dialogue between the superior and the subordinate, and improves understanding of personal goals and concerns. This can also have the effect of increasing the trust between the rater and the ratee. 7. Finally, performance appraisal can be used to determine whether HR programmes such a selection, training, and transfers have been effective or not.
Broadly, performance appraisal serves four...